Classification schemes for indigenous languages of the Americas

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This article is a list of different language classification proposals developed for indigenous languages of the Americas. The article is divided into North, Central, and South America sections; however, the classifications do not always neatly correspond to these continent divisions.

Pre-contact distribution of North American language families north of Mexico
The indigenous languages of Mexico that have more than 100,000 speakers

(See: Indigenous languages of the Americas for the main article about these languages.)

North America[edit]

Gallatin (1836)[edit]

An early attempt at North American language classification was attempted by A. A. Albert Gallatin published in 1826, 1836, and 1848. Gallatin's classifications are missing several languages which are later recorded in the classifications by Daniel G. Brinton and John Wesley Powell. (Gallatin supported the assimilation of indigenous peoples to Euro-American culture.)

(Current terminology is indicated parenthetically in italics.)

Families

  1. Algonkin-Lenape  (=Algonquian)
  2. Athapascas  (=Athabaskan)
  3. Catawban  (=Catawba + Woccons)
  4. Eskimaux  (=Eskimoan)
  5. Iroquois  (=Northern Iroquoian)
  6. Cherokees  (=Southern Iroquoian)
  7. Muskogee  (=Eastern Muskogean)
  8. Chahtas  (=Western Muskogean)
  9. Sioux  (=Siouan)

Languages

  1. Adaize  (=Adai)
  2. Attacapas  (=Atakapa)
  3. Salmon River  (=Bella Coola)
  4. Black Feet  (=Blackfoot)
  5. Pawnees  (=Northern Caddoan)
  6. Caddoes  (=Southern Caddoan)
  7. Chinooks  (=Chinookan)
  8. Chetimachas  (=Chitimacha)
  9. Fall Indians  (=Gros Ventre)
  10. Queen Charlotte's Island  (=Haida)

11. Straits of Fuca  (=Makah)
12. Natches  (=Natchez)
13. Wakash  (=Nootka)
14. Salish  (=Salishan)
15. Shoshonees  (=Shoshone)
16. Atnahs  (=Shuswap)
17. Kinai  (=Tanaina)
18. Koulischen  (=Tlingit)
19. Utchees  (=Yuchi)

Gallatin (1848)[edit]

Families

  1. Algonquian languages
  2. Athabaskan languages
  3. Catawban languages
  4. Eskimoan languages
  5. Iroquoian languages (Northern)
  6. Iroquoian languages (Southern)
  7. Muskogean languages
  8. Siouan languages

Languages

  1. Adai
  2. Alsean
  3. Apache
  4. Arapaho
  5. Atakapa
  6. Caddoan, Northern
  7. Caddoan, Southern
  8. Cayuse-Molala
  9. Chinookan
10. Chitimacha
11. Comanche
12. Haida
13. Kalapuyan
14. Kiowa
15. Klamath
16. Koasati-Alabama
17. Kootenai

18. Kutchin
19. Maricopa (Yuman)
20. Natchez
21. Palaihnihan
22. Plains Apache
23. Sahaptian
24. Salishan
25. Shasta
26. Shoshone
27. Tanaina
28. Tlingit
29. Tsimshian
30. Ute
31. Wakashan, Southern
32. Wichita
33. Yuchi

Powell's (1892) "Fifty-eight"[edit]

John Wesley Powell, an explorer who served as director of the Bureau of American Ethnology, published a classification of 58 "stocks" that is the "cornerstone" of genetic classifications in North America. Powell's classification was influenced by Gallatin to a large extent.

John Wesley Powell was in a race with Daniel G. Brinton to publish the first comprehensive classification of North America languages (although Brinton's classification also covered South and Central America). As a result of this competition, Brinton was not allowed access to the linguistic data collected by Powell's fieldworkers.

(More current names are indicated parenthetically.)

  1. Adaizan
  2. Algonquian
  3. Athapascan
  4. Attacapan  (=Atakapa)
  5. Beothukan  (=Beothuk)
  6. Caddoan
  7. Chimakuan
  8. Chimarikan  (=Chimariko)
  9. Chimmesyan  (=Tsimshian)
10. Chinookan
11. Chitimachan  (=Chitimacha)
12. Chumashan
13. Coahuiltecan
14. Copehan  (=Wintuan)
15. Costanoan
16. Eskimauan  (=Eskimoan)
17. Esselenian  (=Esselen)
18. Iroquoian
19. Kalapooian  (=Kalapuyan)
20. Karankawan  (=Karankawa)

21. Keresan
22. Kiowan  (=Kiowa)
23. Kitunahan  (=Kutenai)
24. Koluschan  (=Tlingit)
25. Kulanapan  (=Pomoan)
26. Kusan  (=Coosan)
27. Lutuamian  (=Klamath-Modoc)
28. Mariposan  (=Yokutsan)
29. Moquelumnan  (=Miwokan)
30. Muskhogean  (=Muskogean)
31. Natchesan  (=Natchez)
32. Palaihnihan
33. Piman  (=Uto-Azetcan)
34. Pujunan  (=Maiduan)
35. Quoratean  (=Karok)
36. Salinan
37. Salishan
38. Sastean  (=Shastan)
39. Shahaptian  (=Sahaptian)

40. Shoshonean  (=Uto-Azetcan)
41. Siouan  (=Siouan–Catawba)
42. Skittagetan  (=Haida)
43. Takilman  (=Takelma)
44. Tañoan  (=Tanoan)
45. Timuquanan  (=Timucua)
46. Tonikan  (=Tunica)
47. Tonkawan  (=Tonkawa)
48. Uchean  (=Yuchi)
49. Waiilatpuan  (=Cayuse & Molala)
50. Wakashan
51. Washoan  (=Washo)
52. Weitspekan  (=Yurok)
53. Wishoskan  (=Wiyot)
54. Yakonan  (=Siuslaw & Alsean)
55. Yanan
56. Yukian
57. Yuman
58. Zuñian  (=Zuni)

Rivet (1924)[edit]

Paul Rivet (1924) lists a total of 46 independent language families in North and Central America. Olive and Janambre are extinct languages of Tamaulipas, Mexico.[1]

Sapir (1929): Encyclopædia Britannica[edit]

Below is Edward Sapir's (1929) famous Encyclopædia Britannica classification. Note that Sapir's classification was controversial at the time and it additionally was an original proposal (unusual for general encyclopedias). Sapir was part of a "lumper" movement in Native American language classification. Sapir himself writes of his classification: "A more far-reaching scheme than Powell's [1891 classification], suggestive but not demonstrable in all its features at the present time" (Sapir 1929: 139). Sapir's classifies all the languages in North America into only 6 families: Eskimo–Aleut, Algonkin–Wakashan, Nadene, Penutian, Hokan–Siouan, and Aztec–Tanoan. Sapir's classification (or something derivative) is still commonly used in general languages-of-the-world type surveys. (Note that the question marks that appear in Sapir's list below are present in the original article.)

"Proposed Classification of American Indian Languages North of Mexico (and Certain Languages of Mexico and Central America)"

I. Eskimo–Aleut

II. Algonkin–Wakashan

1. Algonkin–Ritwan
(1) Algonkin
(2) Beothuk (?)
(3) Ritwan
(a) Wiyot
(b) Yurok
2. Kootenay
3. Mosan (Wakashan–Salish)
(1) Wakashan (Kwakiutl–Nootka)
(2) Chimakuan
(3) Salish

III. Nadene

1. Haida
2. Continental Nadene
(1) Tlingit
(2) Athabaskan

IV. Penutian

1. Californian Penutian
(1) Miwok-Costanoan
(2) Yokuts
(3) Maidu
(4) Wintun
2. Oregon Penutian
(1) Takelma
(2) Coast Oregon Penutian
(a) Coos
(b) Siuslaw
(c) Yakonan
(3) Kalapuya
3. Chinook
4. Tsimshian
5. Plateau Penutian
(1) Sahaptin
(2) Waiilatpuan (Molala–Cayuse)
(3) Lutuami (Klamath-Modoc)
6. Mexican Penutian
(1) Mixe–Zoque
(2) Huave

V. Hokan–Siouan

1. Hokan–Coahuiltecan
A. Hokan
(1) Northern Hokan
(a) Karok, Chimariko, Shasta–Achomawl
(b) Yana
(c) Pomo
(2) Washo
(3) Esselen–Yuman
(a) Esselen
(b) Yuman
(4) Salinan–Seri
(a) Salinan
(b) Chumash
(c) Seri
(5) Tequistlatecan (Chontal)
B. Subtiaba–Tlappanec
C. Coahuiltecan
(1) Tonkawa
(2) Coahuilteco
(a) Coahuilteco proper
(b) Cotoname
(c) Comecrudo
(3) Karankawa
2. Yuki
3. Keres
4. Tunican
(1) TunicaAtakapa
(2) Chitimacha
5. Iroquois
(1) Iroquoian
(2) Caddoan
6. Eastern group
(1) Siouan–Yuchi
(a) Siouan
(b) Yuchi
(2) Natchez–Muskogian
(a) Natchez
(b) Muskogian
(c) Timucua (?)

VI. Aztec–Tanoan

1. Uto-Aztekan
(1) Nahuatl
(2) Piman
(3) Shoshonean
2. Tanoan–Kiowa
(1) Tanoan
(2) Kiowa
3. Zuñi (?)

Voegelin & Voegelin (1965): The "Consensus" of 1964[edit]

Early Localization Native Americans USA.jpg
Early Indian Languages Alaska.jpg

The Voegelin & Voegelin (1965) classification was the result of a conference of Americanist linguists held at Indiana University in 1964. This classification identifies 16 main genetic units.

  1. American Arctic-Paleosiberian phylum
  2. Na-Dene phylum
  3. Macro-Algonquian phylum
  4. Macro-Siouan phylum
  5. Hokan phylum

 6. Penutian phylum

 7. Aztec–Tanoan phylum

 8. Keres
 9. Yuki
10. Beothuk
11. Kutenai
12. Karankawa
13. Chimakuan
14. Salish
15. Wakashan
16. Timucua

Chumashan, Comecrudan, and Coahuiltecan included in Hokan with "reservations". Esselen is included in Hokan with "strong reservations". Tsimshian and Zuni are included in Penutian with reservations.

Campbell & Mithun (1979): The "Black Book"[edit]

Campbell & Mithun's 1979 is a more conservative classification where they insist on more rigorous demonstration of genetic relationship before grouping. Thus, many of the speculative phyla of previous authors are "split".

Goddard (1996), Campbell (1997), Mithun (1999)[edit]

(preliminary)


Classification by Goddard (1996), Campbell (1997), Mithun (1999)

Families

  1. Algic
    1. Algonquian
    2. Wiyot (>Ritwan?)
    3. Yurok (>Ritwan?)
  2. Na-Dene
    1. Eyak-Athabaskan
      1. Eyak
      2. Athabaskan
    2. Tlingit
  3. Caddoan (>Macro-Siouan?)
  4. Chimakuan
  5. Chinookan (> Penutian?)
  6. Chumashan [chúmash]
  7. Comecrudan
  8. Coosan [kus] (> Coast Penutian?)
  9. Eskimo–Aleut
    1. Eskimoan
    2. Aleut = Unangan
  10. Iroquoian
  11. Kalapuyan [kalapúyan]
  12. Kiowa–Tanoan
  13. Maiduan
  14. Muskogean
  15. Palaihnihan (Achumawi–Atsugewi)
  16. Pomoan
  17. Sahaptian
  18. Salishan
  19. Shastan
  20. Siouan–Catawban
    1. Siouan
    2. Catawban
  21. Tsimshianic
  22. Utian
    1. Miwok
    2. Costanoan
  23. Utaztecan
    1. Numic = Plateau
    2. Tübatulabal = Kern
    3. Takic = Southern California
    4. Hopi = Pueblo
    5. Tepiman = Pimic
    6. Taracahitic
    7. Tubar
    8. Corachol
    9. Aztecan
  24. Wakashan
    1. Kwakiutlan
    2. Nootkan
  25. Wintuan (>Coast Penutian?)
  26. Yokutsan
  27. Yuman–Cochimi
    1. Yuman
    2. Cochimi

Isolates

  1. Adai
  2. Alsea [alsi] (> Coast Penutian?)
  3. Atakapa (>Tunican?)
  4. Beothuk (unclassifiable?)
  5. Cayuse
  6. Chimariko
  7. Chititmacha (>Tunican?)
  8. Coahuilteco
  9. Cotoname = Carrizo de Camargo
  10. Esselen
  11. Haida
  12. Karankawa
  13. Karuk
  14. Keres
  15. Klamath-Modoc
  16. Kootenai
  17. Molala
  18. Natchez
  19. Salinan
  20. Siuslaw (>Coast Penutian?)
  21. Takelma
  22. Timucua
  23. Tonkawa
  24. Tunica (>Tunican?)
  25. Wappo (>Yuki–Wappo)
  26. Washo
  27. Yana
  28. Yuchi (>Siouan)
  29. Yuki (>Yuki–Wappo)
  30. Zuni

Stocks

Penutian outside Mexico considered probably by many

  1. Tsimshianic
  2. Chinookan
  3. Takelma
  4. Kalapuya (not close to Takelma: Tarpent & Kendall 1998)
  5. Maidun
  6. Oregon Coast-Wintu (Whistler 1977, Golla 1997)
    1. Alsea
    2. Coosan
    3. Siuslaw
    4. Wintuan
  7. Plateau
    1. Sahaptian
    2. Klamath
    3. Molala
    4. Cayuse ? (poor data)
  8. Yok-Utian ?
    1. Yokuts
    2. Utian

Siouan–Yuchi "probable"; Macro-Siouan likely

  1. Iroquoian–Caddoan
    1. Iroquoian
    2. Caddoan
  2. Siouan–Yuchi
    1. Siouan–Catawban
    2. Yuchi

Natchez–Muskogean most likely of the Gulf hypothesis

  1. Natchez
  2. Muskogean

Hokan: most promising proposals

  1. Karuk
  2. Chimariko
  3. Shastan
  4. Palaihnihan
  5. Yana
  6. Washo
  7. Pomoan
  8. Esselen
  9. Salinan
  10. Yuman–Cochimi
  11. Seri

"Unlikely" to be Hokan:

Chumashan
Tonkawa
Karankawa

Subtiaba–Tlapanec is likely part of Otomanguean (Rensch 1977, Oltrogge 1977).

Aztec–Tanoan is "undemonstrated"; Mosan is a Sprachbund.

Glottolog 4.1 (2019)[edit]

Glottolog 4.1 (2019) recognizes 42 independent families and 31 isolates in North America.[2]

North American languages families proposed in Glottolog 4.1

Mesoamerica[edit]

(Consensus conservative classification)

Families

  • Uto-Aztecan (Other branches outside Mesoamerica. See North America)
  1. Corachol (Cora–Huichol)
  2. Aztecan (Nahua–Pochutec)
  • Totonac–Tepehua
  • Otomanguean
  1. Otopamean
  2. Popolocan–Mazatecan
  3. Subtiaba–Tlapanec
  4. Amuzgo
  5. Mixtecan
  6. Chatino–Zapotec
  7. Chinantec
  8. Chiapanec–Mangue (extinct)
  • Tequistlatec-Jicaque
  • Mixe–Zoque
  • Mayan
  • Misumalpan (Outside Mesoamerica proper. See South America)
  • Chibchan (Outside Mesoamerican proper. See South America)
  1. Paya

Isolates

  • Purépecha
  • Cuitlatec (extinct)
  • Huave
  • Xinca (extinct?)
  • Lenca (extinct)

Proposed stocks

  • Hokan (see North America)
  1. Tequistlatec-Jicaque
  • Macro-Mayan (Penutian affiliation now considered doubtful.)
  1. Totonac–Tepehua
  2. Huave
  3. Mixe–Zoque
  4. Mayan
  • Macro-Chibchan
  1. Chibchan
  2. Misumalpan
  3. Paya (sometimes placed in Chibchan proper)
  4. Xinca
  5. Lenca

South America[edit]

Notable early classifications of classifications of indigenous South American language families include those by Filippo Salvatore Gilii (1780–84)[3], Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro (1784–87)[4][5], Daniel Garrison Brinton (1891)[6], Paul Rivet (1924)[1], John Alden Mason (1950),[7] and Čestmír Loukotka (1968).[8] Other classifications include those of Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño (1940–45)[9], Antonio Tovar (1961; 1984)[10][11], and Jorge A. Suárez (1974).[12][13]

Rivet (1924)[edit]

Paul Rivet (1924) lists 77 independent language families of South America.[1]

Mason (1950)[edit]

Classification of South American languages by J. Alden Mason (1950):[7]

Classification of South American languages by Mason (1950)
Chibchan
  • Western
    • Talamanca
    • Barbacoa
      • Pasto
      • Cayapa-Colorado
    • Guatuso
    • Cuna
  • Pacific
    • Isthmian (Guaymí)
    • Colombian
  • Inter-Andine
    • Páez
    • Coconuco
    • Popayanense
  • Eastern
    • Cundinamarca
    • Arhuaco
    • Central America
    • ? Andakí (Andaquí)
    • ? Betoi group
Languages probably of Chibchan affinities
  • Panzaleo
  • Cara, Caranki
  • Kijo (Quijo)
  • Misumalpan
  • Cofán (Kofane)
Languages of doubtful Chibchan relationships
  • Coche (Mocoa)
  • Esmeralda
  • Tairona, Chimila
  • Yurumanguí
  • Timote
  • Candoshi, Chirino, Murato
  • Cholón
  • Híbito
  • Copallén
  • Aconipa (Akonipa)


Language families of central South America
  • Yunca-Puruhán
    • Yunca
    • Puruhá
    • Cañari (Canyari)
    • Atalán
    • Sec (Sechura, Tallán)
  • Kechumaran
    • Quechua
    • Aymara
  • Chiquitoan
  • Macro-Guaicuruan
    • Mataco-Macá
      • Mataco
      • Macá (Enimagá, Cochaboth)
    • Guaicurú (Waicurú)
  • Lule-Vilelan
    • Tonocoté, Matará, Guacará


Arawakan
  • Chané, Chaná
Languages of probable Arawakan affinities
  • Arauá group
  • Apolista (Lapachu)
  • Amuesha
  • Tucuna (Tikuna)
  • Tarumá
  • Tacana
Languages of possible Arawakan relationships
  • Tuyuneri
  • Jirajara
  • Jívaro
  • Uru-Chipaya-Pukina
    • Ochosuma
    • Chango, Coast Uru


Cariban
Languages of probable Cariban affiliations
  • Chocó, Cariban of Colombia
  • Peba-Yagua
    • Arda
  • Yuma
  • Palmella
  • Yuri (Juri)
  • Pimenteira


Macro-Tupí-Guaranian
  • Tupí-Guaranian
    • Yurimagua (Zurimagua)
  • Arikem
  • Miranyan (Boran)
  • Witotoan
    • Nonuya
    • Muenane
    • Fitita
    • Orejón
    • Coeruna
    • Andoke
    • Resigero
  • Záparoan
    • Omurano (Roamaina?)
    • Sabela
    • Canelo
    • Awishira
Northern tropical lowland independent families
  • Warrauan
  • Auakéan
  • Calianan
  • Macuan
  • Shirianán
  • Sálivan, Macu, Piaróa
  • Pamigua, Tinigua
  • Otomacan, Guamo (Guama), Yaruran
  • Guahiban
  • Puinavean (Macú)
  • Tucanoan (Betoyan)
    • Coto
  • Cahuapanan
    • Muniche
  • Panoan
    • Chama languages
    • Cashibo
    • Mayoruna
    • Itucale, Simacu, Urarina
    • Aguano
    • Chamicuro
Southern tropical lowland independent families
Macro-Ge
  • Ge
  • Caingang
  • Camacán, Mashacalí, Purí (Coroado)
    • Camacán
    • Mashacalí
    • Purí (Coroado)
  • Patashó
  • Malalí
  • Coropó
  • Botocudo
Other language families of eastern Brazil
Southernmost languages
  • Ataguitan
    • Atacama
    • Omawaca (Omahuaca)
    • Diaguita (Calchaquí)
  • Charrua, Kerandí, Chaná, etc.
  • Allentiac (Huarpean)
  • Sanavirón, Comechingónan
    • Sanavirón
    • Comechingón
  • Araucanian
    • Chono
  • Puelchean
    • Het (Chechehet)
  • Chonan (Tewelche, Tehuelche), Ona
  • Yahganan
  • Alacalufan

Loukotka (1968)[edit]

Čestmír Loukotka (1968) proposed a total of 117 indigenous language families (called stocks by Loukotka) and isolates of South America.[8]

Kaufman (1990)[edit]

Families and isolates[edit]

Terrence Kaufman's classification is meant to be a rather conservative genetic grouping of the languages of South America (and a few in Central America). He has 118 genetic units. Kaufman believes for these 118 units "that there is little likelihood that any of the groups recognized here will be broken apart". Kaufman uses more specific terminology than only language family, such as language area, emergent area, and language complex, where he recognizes issues such as partial mutual intelligibility and dialect continuums. The list below collapses these into simply families. Kaufman's list is numbered and grouped by "geolinguistic region". The list below is presented in alphabetic order. Kaufman uses an anglicized orthography for his genetic units, which is mostly used only by himself. His spellings have been retained below.

Families:

  1. Aimoré
  2. Arawán
  3. Barbakóan
  4. Bóran
  5. Boróroan
  6. Chapakúran
  7. Charrúan
  8. Chíbchan
  9. Chimúan
  10. Chipaya
  11. Chokó
  12. Cholónan
  13. Chon
  14. Haki
  15. Harákmbut
  16. Hiraháran
  17. Hívaro
  18. Jabutían
  19. Je
  20. Kamakánan
  21. Karajá
  22. Káriban
  23. Katakáoan
  24. Katukínan
  25. Kawapánan
  26. Kawéskar
  27. Kechua
  28. Maipúrean
  29. Mashakalían
  30. Maskóian
  31. Matákoan
  32. Misumalpa
  33. Mosetén
  34. Múran
  35. Nambikuara
  36. Otomákoan
  37. Páesan
  38. Pánoan
  39. Puinávean
  40. Purían
  41. Sálivan
  42. Samúkoan
  43. Sáparoan
  44. Takánan
  45. Timótean
  46. Tiníwan
  47. Tukánoan
  48. Tupían
  49. Wahívoan
  50. Waikurúan
  51. Warpe
  52. Witótoan
  53. Yanomáman
  54. Yáwan

Isolates or unclassified:

  1. Aikaná
  2. Andoke
  3. Awaké
  4. Baenã
  5. Betoi
  6. Chikitano
  7. Ezmeralda
  8. Fulnió
  9. Gamela
  10. Gorgotoki
  11. Guató
  12. Hotí
  13. Iranshe
  14. Itonama
  15. Jaruro
  16. Jeikó
  17. Jurí
  18. Kaliana
  19. Kamsá
  20. Kanichana
  21. Kapishaná
  22. Karirí
  23. Katembrí
  24. Kayuvava
  25. Koayá
  26. Kofán
  27. Kandoshi
  28. Kolyawaya jargon
  29. Kukurá
  30. Kulyi
  31. Kunsa
  32. Leko
  33. Lule
  34. Maku
  35. Mapudungu
  36. Matanawí
  37. Movima
  38. Munichi
  39. Natú
  40. Ofayé
  41. Omurano
  42. Otí
  43. Pankararú
  44. Puelche
  45. Pukina
  46. Rikbaktsá
  47. Sabela
  48. Sechura
  49. Shokó
  50. Shukurú
  51. Tarairiú
  52. Taruma
  53. Tekiraka
  54. Tikuna
  55. Trumai
  56. Tushá
  57. Urarina
  58. Vilela
  59. Wamo
  60. Wamoé
  61. Warao
  62. Yámana
  63. Yurakare
  64. Yurimangi

Stocks[edit]

In addition to his conservative list, Kaufman list several larger "stocks" which he evaluates. The names of the stocks are often obvious hyphenations of two members; for instance, the Páes-Barbakóa stock consists of the Páesan and Barbakóan families. If the composition is not obvious, it is indicated parenthetically. Kaufman puts question marks by Kechumara and Mosetén-Chon stocks.

"Good" stocks:

"Probable" stocks:

  • Macro-Je (=Chikitano + Boróroan + Aimoré + Rikbaktsá + Je + Jeikó + Kamakánan + Mashakalían + Purían + Fulnío + Karajá + Ofayé + Guató)
  • Mura–Matanawí

"Promising" stocks:

"Maybe" stocks:

Clusters and networks[edit]

Kaufman's largest groupings are what he terms clusters and networks. Clusters are equivalent to macro-families (or phyla or superfamilies). Networks are composed of clusters. Kaufman views all of these larger groupings to be hypothetical and his list is to be used as a means to identify which hypotheses most need testing.

Campbell (2012)[edit]

Lyle Campbell (2012) proposed the following list of 53 uncontroversial indigenous language families and 55 isolates of South America - a total of 108 independent families and isolates.[13] Language families with 9 or more languages are highlighted in bold. The remaining language families all have 6 languages or fewer.

Campbell (2012) leaves out the classifications of these languages as uncertain.

Glottolog 4.1 (2019)[edit]

Glottolog 4.1 (2019) recognizes 44 independent families and 64 isolates in South America.[2]

South American languages families proposed in Glottolog 4.1

All of the Americas[edit]

Swadesh (1960 or earlier)[edit]

Morris Swadesh further consolidated on Sapir's North American classification and expanded it to group all indigenous languages of the Americas in just 6 families, 5 of which were entirely based in the Americas.[14]

  1. Vasco-Dene languages included the Eskimo–Aleut, Na-Dene, Wakashan and Kutenai families along with most of the languages of Eurasia.
  2. Macro-Hokan roughly comprised a combination of Sapir's Hokan–Siouan and Almosan families and expanded into Central America including the Jicaque language.
  3. Macro-Mayan comprising Mayan along with Sapir's Penutian and Aztec-Tanoan families, the Otomanguean languages and various languages of Central and South America including the Chibchan languages, the Paezan languages and the Tucanoan languages.
  4. Macro-Quechua comprising the Zuni language, the Purépecha language and various languages of South America including Quechua, the Aymara language, the Panoan languages and most of the various other languages of Patagonia and the Andes.
  5. Macro-Carib, an almost entirely South American family including the Carib languages, the Macro-Je languages and the Jirajara languages, albeit including some Caribbean languages.
  6. Macro-Arawak, a family primarily confined to South America and its component families included the Arawakan languages and the Tupian languages. However, it also was proposed to include the Taíno language in the Caribbean and the Timucua language in Florida.

Greenberg (1960, 1987)[edit]

Joseph Greenberg's classification[15] in his 1987 book Language in the Americas is best known for the highly controversial assertion that all North, Central and South American language families other than Eskimo–Aleut and Na-Dene including Haida, are part of an Amerind macrofamily. This assertion of only three major American language macrofamiles is supported by DNA evidence,[16] although the DNA evidence does not provide support for the details of his classification.

Amerind macrofamily proposed by Greenberg
  1. Northern Amerind
    1. Almosan–Keresiouan
      1. Almosan
        1. Algic
        2. Kutenai
        3. Mosan
          1. Wakashan
          2. Salish
          3. Chimakuan
      2. Caddoan
      3. Keres
      4. Siouan
      5. Iroquoian
    2. Penutian
      1. California Penutian
        1. Maidu
        2. Miwok–Costanoan
        3. Wintun
        4. Yokuts
      2. Chinook
      3. Mexican Penutian (=Macro-Mayan)
        1. Huave
        2. Mayan
        3. Mixe–Zoque
        4. Totonac
      4. Oregon Penutian
      5. Plateau Penutian
      6. Tsimshian
      7. Yukian
      8. Gulf
        1. Atakapa
        2. Chitimacha
        3. Muskogean
        4. Natchez
        5. Tunica
      9. Zuni
    3. Hokan
      1. Nuclear Hokan
        1. Northern
          1. Karok–Shasta
          2. Yana
          3. Pomo
        2. Washo
        3. Esselen–Yuman
        4. Salinan–Seri
        5. Waicuri
        6. Maratino
        7. Quinigua
        8. Tequistlatec
      2. Coahuiltecan
        1. Tonkawa
        2. Nuclear Coahuiltecan
        3. Karankawa
      3. Subtiaba
      4. Jicaque
      5. Yurumangui
  2. Central Amerind
    1. Kiowa–Tanoan
    2. Otomanguean
    3. Uto-Aztecan
  3. Chibchan–Paezan
    1. Chibchan
      1. Nuclear Chibchan
        1. Antioquia
        2. Aruak
        3. Chibcha
        4. Cuna
        5. Guaymi
        6. Malibu
        7. Misumalpan
        8. Motilon
        9. Rama
        10. Talamanca
      2. Paya
      3. Purépecha
      4. Xinca
      5. Yanomam
      6. Yunca–Puruhan
    2. Paezan
      1. Allentiac
      2. Atacama
      3. Betoi
      4. Chimu
      5. Itonama
      6. Jirajara
      7. Mura
      8. Nuclear Paezan
        1. Andaqui
        2. Barbacoa
        3. Choco
        4. Paez
      9. Timucua
      10. Warrao
  4. Andean (Greenberg (1960) joined Andean and Equatorial, but Greenberg (1987) did not)
    1. Aymara language
    2. Itucale–Sabela
      1. Itucale
      2. Mayna
      3. Sabela
    3. Cahuapana–Zaparo
      1. Cahuapano
      2. Zaparo
    4. Northern
      1. Catacao
      2. Cholona
      3. Culli
      4. Leco
      5. Sechura
    5. Quechua
    6. Southern
      1. Qawesqar
      2. Mapundungu
      3. Gennaken
      4. Patagon
      5. Yamana
  5. Equatorial–Tucanoan
    1. Equatorial
      1. Macro-Arawakan
        1. Arawakan languages
        2. Guahibo
        3. Katembri
        4. Otomaco
        5. Tinigua
      2. Cayuvava
      3. Coche
      4. Jivaro–Kandoshi
        1. Cofan
        2. Esmeralda
        3. Jivaro
        4. Kandoshi
        5. Yaruro
      5. Kariri–Tupi
        1. Kariri
        2. Tupian languages
      6. Piaroa
      7. Taruma
      8. Timote
      9. Trumai
      10. Tusha
      11. Yuracare
      12. Zamucoan
    2. Tucanoan
      1. Auixiri
      2. Canichana
      3. Capixana
      4. Catuquina
      5. Gamella
      6. Huari
      7. Iranshe
      8. Kaliana–Maku
        1. Auake
        2. Kaliana
        3. Maku
      9. Koaia
      10. Movima
      11. Muniche
      12. Nambikwara
      13. Natu
      14. Pankaruru
      15. Puinave
      16. Shukura
      17. Ticuna–Yuri
        1. Ticuna
        2. Yuri
      18. Tucanoan
      19. Uman
  6. Ge–Pano–Carib
    1. Macro-Ge
      1. Bororo
      2. Botocudo
      3. Caraja
      4. Chiquito
      5. Erikbatsa
      6. Fulnio
      7. Ge–Kaingang
        1. Ge languages
        2. Kaingang
      8. Guato
      9. Kamakan
      10. Mashakali
      11. Opaie
      12. Oti
      13. Puri
      14. Yabuti
    2. Macro-Panoan
      1. Charruan
      2. Lengua
      3. Luke–Vilela
        1. Lule
        2. Vilela
      4. Mataco–Guaicuru
        1. Guaicuru
        2. Mataco
      5. Moseten
      6. Pano–Tacanan languages
        1. Panoan languages
        2. Tacanan languages
    3. Macro-Carib
      1. Andoke
      2. Bora–Uitoto
        1. Boro
        2. Uitoto
        3. Carib
        4. Kukura
        5. Yagua

Mixed languages[edit]

In American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America, Lyle Campbell describes various pidgins and trade languages spoken by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.[17] Some of these mixed languages have not been documented and are known only by name.

Lingua francas

Linguistic areas[edit]

Lexical comparison[edit]

Lexical comparison of indigenous languages of the Americas from vocabulary tables at native-languages.org:[18]

Lexical comparison of indigenous languages of the Americas
Language Family one two three four five man woman dog sun moon water
Yuki Yuki panwi opi molmi omahant huiko iwop musp hansom pilant lashkawohl uk
Warao Warao isaka manamo dijanamo orobakaya mojoapasi nipora tira peoro ya waniku ho
Wappo Wappo pawa hopi’ hopo’ka ola kata ’éwi’ met’ai tsu’itsu hina hina me’i
Waorani Waorani aroke mẽña mẽña go aroke õnginaen õngkiyaen gĩta naenke apãikã epe
Urarina Urarina eleijĩ kadzatajai nichatajai jenai asaoki kacha ene maso enota atene ĩono
Ulwa Ulwa as bâs arungka singka al yal sûlu waiku was
Toba Toba nathedac cacayni cacaynilia nalotapegat nivoca cacaynilia yale ’alo pyoq la’ awogoyk etagat
Tlahuica Tlahuica mbla moo pjiu ñitjopikibaly cuit’aa wuendu wuetxu tsii t’untata t’unana ndaa
Timucua Timucua yaha yucha hapu cheqeta marua biro nia efa ela acu ibi
Ticuna Ticuna wüxi taxre tomaxixpü Ãgümücü wüxi mixepüx chatü ngexüi airu iake tawẽmake dexá
Tepehua (Pisaflores) Tepehua tam t’uy t’utu t’at’i kisi popa’ t’aku x’oy wilhchan malhkuyu’ xkaan
Tehuelche Tehuelche chochen janjen; uame kahas kahaje zenh ahal karken vuachn; shamehuen jenk; sheuen jenjinkon lehe
Sumu Sumu as bâs arungka singka alni yalni sûl waiku wasni
Quileute Quileute wihl hla’o qa’al ba’iyas tasi ti’iyahl wisatsu’upat kadidu qahla pititchu kwaiya
Puelche Puelche chéye päch käch mala pastrai yamkan dáshü apiúkük apioxok yagep
Pilaga Pilaga onolek dosolqa tres le’em yawo pyoq katena awoxoik noop
Paez Paez teech e’z tekh pihc u’y alku sek a’te yu
Ona Ona shosh shohki sauken koni shohki kishmarey chon naa uéshn kren kre con
Muniche Muniche wi’tsa’a utspa utsumün utsptsi i’süra mühümüunts hwa shpaiki iidi
Muinane Muinane sáano mínooci mínooci sáano mínooci mínooci sahúse gáifi gáigo jícu níhiba fúcúo níhiba nífaihu
Mocovi Mocovi ona dos tres yaale aalo pyog ra’asa shiraygo wagayaq
Miskito Miskito kum wol yumpa wol wol matsip waikna mairin yul lapta kati laya
Matlatzinca Matlatzinca rawi tenowi roxu rokunjowi rokut’a wetmaa xuwi sini chutata chunené tawi
Mapuche Mapuche quiñe epu cla meli quechu huentru domo trehua anti cuyen co
Karankawa Karankawa eshe haíkia kaxáyi saylá calí qüeshe clon; doowal tayk; auil clé; komkom
Kadiweu Kadiweu onidateci iniwata iniwatadigini cwaatolo nigoteno gobaagadi goneleegiwa iwaalo necenigo aligege epenai ninyogodi
Jirajara Jirajara iyít siepuk peru yuaú ing
Jebero Jebero ala’sa’ katu’ta’ kala inkatu’ allitulun yuyu’ ku’aper ñiñi’wa ke’ki duker dek
Huave Huave noic ic er piquiw aqoquiaw naxey najtaj pet teat nüt müm caaw yow
Huachipaeri Huachipaeri unchinda botta ba’pa bottabotta uaxet tak pöxen meei
Gayon Gayon yus susegane yivat guayí
Cofan Cofan fue’cco ccoangi’cco ccoanifué’cco ccattufayi’cco fuefayi’cco tsandie pushesu ain chiga ccovu tsa’ccu
Chayahuita Chayahuita a’na’ tsahtu’ tsarah kahtabinih a’natïrahpu’ kïmabi sanabi ni’ni’ pi’ih yuhkih i’sha
Candoshi Candoshi mínamtá tsíbonó tóochpá ipónponáró zamíatpata kamooza kiiza tomoozi chinoozi zaari tsoopi kógó
Cahuarano Cahuarano núki kómi kai’ muesáhi müiyaro nonamiha ahari’ puratiatsa
Kamsa Kamsa kañe uta unga entxa xembasa kexe xiñe juaxkona buyexe
Bora Bora tsane míñéécuú pápihchúú píínéehójtsí tsáhojtsí wajpi walle oojííbye nuhba pécóejpi nuhba nújpacyo
Ayoreo Ayoreo chojmara gare gadioc gagajni jnani gapua tamocoi guede yodi
Ayoman Ayamon bógha auyí mongañá yúsh yu ing
Arabela Arabela nikiriyatu kaapiki kerahaa puiyano maahi sare pananu raka mowaka
Andoa Andoa nikinjo ishki kimsa yaraka majĩ atsari upananu araka muwaka
Amarakaeri Amarakaeri nogtida botta’ bapa’ botta’botta’ huabokerek huettone’ kuhua niokpo puug hue’ey
Adai Adai nancas nass colle tacache seppacan haasing quaechuke nachavat holcat
Abipon Abipon iñitãra iñoaká iñoaka iekaiñi naatapici hanamhegem yoalé oanerma neteginc empaega grauek enagap
Cuzco Quechua Quechua hoq iskay kinsa tawa phisqa qari warmi allqu intiq killa yaku
Ecuadorian Quichua Quechua shuc ishcai quimsa chuscu pichca cari huarmi allcu inti quilla yacu
Huanca Quechua Quechua huk ishkay kimsa tawa pichqa nuna warmi allqu inti killa yaku
Abipon Guaicuruan iñitãra iñoaká iñoaka iekaiñi naatapici hanamhegem yoalé oanerma neteginc empaega grauek enagap
Guaicuru Guaicuruan uniniteguí itoada unelei:gua nogodi
Kadiweu Guaicuruan onidateci iniwata iniwatadigini cwaatolo nigoteno gobaagadi goneleegiwa iwaalo necenigo aligege epenai ninyogodi
Mocovi Guaicuruan iñiateda iñabako tres yaale aalo pyog ra’asa shiraygo wagayaq
Pilaga Guaicuruan onolek dosolqa tres le’em yawo pyoq katena awoxoik noop
Toba Guaicuruan nathedac cacayni cacaynilia nalotapegat nivoca cacaynilia yale alo pyoq la’ awogoyk etagat
Awa Pit Barbacoan maza paas kutña ampu axampa kwicha palapcha pii
Guambiano Barbacoan kan pa pyn myk ixuk wera pych pyl pi
Totoro Barbacoan ka’na pa pyn myk ixuk we’ra pyx pyl pi
Chachi Barbacoan main paa pema unbeeruka xinbu kucha pahta kepe pahta pi
Tsafiki Barbacoan manga paluga pemana tsatsi sona susu yo pe pi
Central Aymara Aymara maya paya kimsa pusi pisqa jaqi marmi anu inti phaxsi uma
Zuni Zuni do:pa kwili ha’i a:wide ap’de łashik’i mak’i watsida ya’dok’ya yachunne ky’awe
Yuchi Yuchi saòh nowah nokah ptachthklah ptchichwacha koeetah waneetah ptso shafah tsach
Tonkawa Tonkawa we:’ispax ketay metis sikit kaskwa ha:’ako:n kwa:nla ekwan taxas a:x
Kootenai Kootenai óke as káhlssa hátsa yíku titkat páhlki hálchin natánik natánik wóo
Cochiti Keresan ishk kyuh’mi chahm kya’nah t’ahm hachtzeh k’uyaw tiya oshach tahwach tz’itz
Laguna Keresan iska tyo chemi tyanna tamma hadztse koya tiya osadza tawadza tsits
Andoa Zaparoan nikinjo ishki kimsa yara’ka mahĩ a’tsari’ upa’nanu’u a’raka’ muwaka
Arabela Zaparoan nikiriyatu kaapika keraha puiyano maahi sare pananu raka mowaka
Cahuarana Zaparoan núki kómi kai’ muesáhi müiyaro nonamiha ahari’ puratiatsa
Yagua Yaguan tárakií nãrahũy mũmũrĩ nãryahũyu tándaka wanũ wáturá nĩmbyi hiñĩĩ harimĩnĩ hãã
Bora Witotoan tsane míñéécuú pápihchúú píínéehójtsí tsáhojtsí wajpi walle oojííbye nuhba pécóejpi nuhba nújpacyo
Minica Witoto Witotoan da ména da’ámani naga ámade jubekuiro uima rungo juco jitoma fu’ui jaunui
Murui Witoto Witotoan daje mena daje amani naga amaga dabecuìro üima rüño jüco jitoma fübuì jünui
Nipode Witoto Witotoan da ména da’ámani pugoménari’e hubéba uima rungo huko hidoma pubu’i haunui
Lule Lule-Vilela alapea tamop tamlip locuép ini so
Vilela Lule-Vilela yaagüit uké nipetuéi pukevalé oló
Achuar Jivaroan chikíchik jímiar kambátam chindúk chindúk ju uvejkamash áishmag núwa yawáñ tsáñ yántu yúmi
Aguaruna Jivaroan makichik jimag kampatum ipaksumat uweg amum aíshmag núwa yawá etsajaĩ nantú yumi
Huambisa Jivaroan tikichik jimar kampatum aintuk-aintuk uwejan chikichkinak ashmag nuwa yawa etsa nantu entsa
Shuar Jivaroan chikíchik jímiar manaint aínttiuk uwej aishman núa yawá etsa nantu entsá
Amarakaeri Harakmbet nogtida botta’ bapa’ botta’botta’ wasú’et niókpo púhug we’ey
Huachipaeri Harakmbet unchinda botta ba’pa bottabotta uaxet tak pöxen meei
Ona Chon shórsh shóki shauke koni shóki chon naa uéshn kren kre con
Tehuelche Chon hauke jokie ka’ash kague allun karken shamehuen sheuen kenginkon le
Chayahuita Cahuapanan a’na’ tsahtu’ tsarah kahtabinih a’natïrahpu’ kïmabi sanabi ni’ni’ niókpo pi’ih i’sha
Jebero Cahuapanan ala’sa’ katu’ta’ kala inkatu’ allitulun yuyu’ ku’aper ñiñi’wa ke’ki duker dek
Tepehua Pisaflores Totonacan nkwí nndye tzans’à tzanskù kítzue’ ndò’kwjión’ chi’ ndá
Totonac Totonacan rawi tenowi roxu wetmaa xuwi sini chutata chunené tawi
Mayangna Misumalpan as bâs alni yalni sûl waiku wasni
Miskito Misumalpan kum wol yumpa waikna mairin yul lapta kati laya
Ulwa Misumalpan as bâs al yal sûlu waiku was
Mixe de Coatlán Mixe-Zoquean tuuk mehc tugiig midaax migoox jaay toodyik xii po’ nii
Mixe de Jaltepec Mixe-Zoquean tu’k maehck tigí:k mahkta·šk migó·šk ha"y mihá ši po" ni:
Mixe de Tlahuitoltepec Mixe-Zoquean tu"k mahck tiki:k maktošk makvšk ho:’y tv’všytihk ši:w pv’ ni:
Oluta Popoluca Mixe-Zoquean tu’k mesko tuvi’k maktasko mokoško hayka’k mahuwu šivi po’a ni:
Sayula Popoluca Mixe-Zoquean tu·c mechc túgup máctašp mogošp jayau to·šáy šujw po· nu·
Zoque de Copainalá Mixe-Zoquean tum metza tucay macscuy mohsay pin yomo jama poyah ni
Zoque de Francisco León Mixe-Zoquean tum meckuy tu’kay maksykuy mosay pin yomo hama poya ni’
Zoque de Rayón Mixe-Zoquean tum metsa tuka’ makshku’ mosa’ pt yomo jama poya n’
Chimalapa Zoque Mixe-Zoquean tumü metza’ang tuwa’ang maktaxang moxang pün yomü’ jama xepe’ nü’
Ayapa Zoque Mixe-Zoquean tum bech tuguna’ baksna’ bosna’ ha:’ya yo:’mo’ ha:ma’ ndi’
Sierra Popoluca Mixe-Zoquean tum wsten tukuten maktasten mosten pshiñ yoomo hama poya n’
Texistepec Popoluca Mixe-Zoquean tum huisna tuguná bacsná bosná puuñ yooma’ jaam nu’
Haisla Wakashan n’aukw màlaukw yudùkw muukw sk’aukw wìsəm ğənəm w’às n’aqwəla w’ap
Heiltsuk Wakashan m’ən mał yudukw mukw sk’aukw wisəm ğənəm w’ac’ n’usi w’apa
Kwakiutl Wakashan nem ma’ł yudxw mu sek’a wisəm gnəm w’as ł’isla m’kwla w’ap
Makah Wakashan cakwa∙’ak atł wi∙ bu∙ šu’č ła∙uk xad’ak qidi∙tł daka∙ daka∙ ča’ak
Nootka Wakashan c’awa’ ała qacc’a muu suč’a čakup łuuc iniił ł’uup’in hupał č’a’ak
Chemehuevi Uto-Aztecan suu wa’ha pa’hi waciw ma’nig ta’wac ma’ma’u ta’va mi’ja paa
Comanche Uto-Aztecan sumu wahaatu pahiitu hayarokwetu mo’obetu tenahpu wa’ipu taabe mua paa
Kawaiisu Uto-Aztecan suuyu wahayu paheyu watsuyu manügiyu ta’napüz momo’o tava müa po’o
Mono Uto-Aztecan sumu wahat pahi wacukwit manuki nawa huuhpi’ tape tamua paya
Northern Paiute Uto-Aztecan sumu’yoo waha’yoo pahe’yoo watsukwe’yoo manege’yoo nana mogo’ne taba muha paa
Panamint Uto-Aztecan süwüttü wahattü pahittü waccüwittü manügittü taŋŋomme waipi tabe müah paa
Shoshone Uto-Aztecan semme’ wahatehwe bahaitee’ watsewite manegite dainah wa’ipi dabai muh baa’
Ute Uto-Aztecan šuu waini peini wacuwini manigini tangwaci mamaci tavaci muatagoci paa
Cahuilla Uto-Aztecan súple’ wíh pah wíciw namakwánang kínangiš ñícił támyat ménił pál
Cupeno Uto-Aztecan suplawut wi’ pa wichu numaqananax naxanis muwikut tamyut munil pal
Gabrielino Uto-Aztecan pukuu’ wehee’ pahee’ watsaa’ mahaar pukuu’ tokoor taamit muwaar paara’
Juaneno Uto-Aztecan supúl wéx páahay wasá maháar kworooyt shongwáala temét móyla páal
Luiseno Uto-Aztecan supúl wéh páahay wasá’ maháar atáax; ya’áš šungáal timét móoyla páala
Serrano Uto-Aztecan huukp woh paahei’ wacah mahàc taqt nùht taamit muat pàt
Hopi Uto-Aztecan suukya’ lööyö’ pàayo’ naalöyö’ tsivot taaqa wùuti taawa muuyaw kuuyi
Tubatulabal Uto-Aztecan čič woo paai naanau maahaižiya taatwal šoobišt taal muuyal paal
Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan ce ome’ yeyi nahui macuil tlacatl cihuatl tonaltzintli metztli atl
Pipil Uto-Aztecan se ume yey nawi makwil takat siwat tunal metsti at
Cora Uto-Aztecan sai wá’apwa waihka mwaákwa anshivi taáta’a uúka xeucat máskira’i háh
Huichol Uto-Aztecan zeví húta háika náuka áuzuvi téví uká táu mechéri
Guarijio Uto-Aztecan piré gohká paiká na’agó marihkí tíhyé huupí tahá meehcá pa’wí
Mayo Uto-Aztecan seénu woóyi báhi naíki mámni huúbi taá’a meéca baá’am
Opata Uto-Aztecan sei godum veidum nauoi marqui dor hub túui metzat bat
Tarahumara Uto-Aztecan biré osá bikiyá nawó marí rihóy ubí rayénari michá ba’wí
Yaqui Uto-Aztecan seenu woi vahi naiki mamni takaa huubi taa’a meecha vaa’am
O'odham Uto-Aztecan hema gohk waik gi’ik hetasp cheoj oks tash mashath shuhthagi
Pima Bajo Uto-Aztecan himak goka vaika maakov maviis; utaspo kili okosi; ubbi tasa masadi sudagi
Tepehuan Uto-Aztecan imádo góka báíka maakóva taáma tión uví tásai masádai áki
Guarani Tupian peteĩ mokõi mbohapy irundy kuimba’e kuña jagua kuarahy jasy y
Xipaya Tupian meme buda minam duaetuchẽ sanapu sidja apu kwazadi manduka
Barasana Tucanoan sĩgũ huara Ĩdiãrã bãbãrĩrãkũ kõhõmõkãrãkũ ũmu rõmio ekari yai mũihu mũihu oko
Orejon Tucanoan te’yo tepẽ’ño baba’ñõ mĩõyorea te’hütürea ühü nõmĩõ yai hoya mãĩ mãĩ ñãmĩãki oko
Secoya Tucanoan te’e caya toaso cajese jiti ëjë nomio mai ñañi oko
Crow Siouan hawáte dúupe dáawiia shoopé chiaxxó bacheé bía áxxaashe bilítaachiia bilé
Hidatsa Siouan luetza nopa nawi topa kihu itaka mia midi makumidi miri
Assiniboine Siouan wąži nųba yamni doba zaptą wįca wįyą wi hąwi mini
Dakota Siouan wanzi nonpa yamni topa zaptan wicaa winyan wi hanwi mini
Lakota Siouan wanji núnpa yámni tópa záptan wica winyan wi hanyewi miní
Kansa Siouan mínxci nonbá yáblin tóba sátan níka wak’ó min min ni
Mandan Siouan maxana nunp namini toop kixon numank wiinh minaki ištunminaki mini
Omaha Siouan wiŋ naŋba dhabdhiŋ duba sattaŋ šenu wa’u miŋ miŋ niŋ
Osage Siouan win thonba thabthin doba çaton nik’a wak’o mi mihondon ni
Quapaw Siouan mínxči nonbá dá·bnin ton·wa sáttan níkka wax’ó mi miánba ni
Hochunk Siouan hijâkíra noñp dani tcop satcâ wañgrá hinugijá wira huhawira nina
Otoe Siouan iyunki nuwe danyi dowe thatun wanshige inake bi bi ni
Biloxi Siouan sonsa nonpa dani topa ksan anya anxti ina ina ani
Ofo Siouan núfha nupha tani topa kifan ito iyan ila ila ani
Catawba Siouan ndəpen nanprə namənda parpə paktə inyen inya nunti wicawa nunti yanhi
Coeur d'Alene Salishan nek’we’ esel chi’łes mus tsilcht sqi’ltmkhw smi’yem ałdarench ałdarench sikwe’
Columbian Salishan naks tko’is tkałas musus tsilikst skaltumiax sma’am kosum suka’am sa’ułq
Okanagan Salishan naks usil kałis mus tsilikst sqaltumiah tłkłamiluh xai’ałax sokemm si’ulq
Salish Salishan nko’o eseł tsełe mos tsił skaltamiax simmu’em spukani saka’am se’ułku
Cowichan Salishan nutsa yisella łi’xw xa’asun łkatsis sweke slenni sumshasat ł’qalts ka
Klallam Salishan nəc’u’ čəsə’ łixw ŋús łq’ášč swəy’qə słáni sqwqwəy’ łqayč’ qwú
Lushootseed Salishan dəč’u’ sáli’ łixw búus cəlác stubš słádəy’ łúkwał słukwálb alqwu’
Nooksack Salishan nutso sali łixw mos łkačis sweyuka łannai tsoxatsat łqałts hotsim
Straits Salish Salishan nət’sə’ čəsə łixw ŋas łq’ečəs swəyqə’ słeni’ sqwəqwəl łqel’č qwa
Twana Salishan dakas usali cha’as busas sts’hwas stibat sladai sluqatl slutlub ka
Cowlitz Salishan utsus salli kałi mus tsilats siłimx kuwił łuqał łuqał kal’l
Lower Chehalis Salishan paw sal cha’ł mos tsi’lčs sti’ixw skeiklunłk skalus tani’m kal
Quinault Salishan paw salli cha’uła mus tsilakis sti’ixw skekłnał tani’m tani’m ka’l
Bella Coola Salishan maw lhwaas asmús mús ts’ícw kwtmts cnas snx tl’uk qla
Miwok (Central) Penutian kene atika talakasu ayissa masaka nana assa hiema kome kiku
Miwok (Coast) Penutian kenne osha teleeka huya kennekkuh hii puluuluk liwa
Miwok (Southern) Penutian kenge otiko tolokot ojisa mahoka nanga oha watu kome kiky
Ohlone Penutian hemetca uthin kaphan utit parwes taares mukurma hismen tar sii
Choynimni Penutian yet punuy coopin hatpanay yiteinut kouteun mukoi opodo t’oynopodo idik
Chukchansi Penutian yet’a ponoy soopin hathpanay yitecinil mai muk’ela xapil tayenimniop ilik’
Yawelmani Penutian yit ponoi sophin hotponoi yitsinil nono kaiina op op ilik’
Konkow Penutian wuku pene sa’apu suye masani yepim; maidum kulem pakaum deipampakaum momim
Maidu Penutian wiiti pēne sāpwi tsöye māwike maidüm küle pokom pōmpokom momim
Nisenan Penutian wyttee peen sapyj cyyj maawyk majdykym kylem okpajim pombokom mom
Klamath Penutian ńaas laap ndan woniip ton’ip hiswaqs sn’eweets s’aba s’aba ambo
Nez Perce Penutian náqc lepít mitát pílep páxat háma áyat hísemtuks hísemtuks kús
Yakama Penutian náxs nápt mítaat pínapt páxat iwínsh áyat áan álxayx chúush
Tsimshian Penutian k’üül gu’pl k’wili txaalpx kwstuns yuuta hana’a gimgmdziws gyemgmáatk aks
Nomlaki Penutian k’etem palet panoł tławi čansem win daki tuku čenał mem
Patwin Penutian eteta pampata ponohlta emusta etesemta wita paakita wiliwerus sanar mem
Wintu Penutian k’ete·t pa·l panuł ł’awit č’ansem wi·ta p’o·qta sas čipisas me·m
Chinook Penutian ixt môkst łun lakt kwanm łkwalipx ła’akil o’ołax okłumin łtsuq
Kathlamet Penutian ixat môkct lonikc lakt quinum lxam aqakilak aqałax akłemin łtcuqoa
Wishram Penutian ixt môkčt łun lakt gwεnεm ikala agagilak agałax akułmin iłčqoa
Molalla Penutian nanga lapka matka pipa piku’u ya’i nangihlai was ha’hl okuns
Capanahua Pano-Tacanan huestí rabe quimisha chosco pichca bebo aibo ochiti bari oshne jene
Marubo Pano-Tacanan wistisi ribiokĩ muquen vuni aĩvo wapa; mina vari oshi waka; indi
Shipibo Pano-Tacanan huestiora rabé quimisha chosco pichica joni ainbo ochíti bari use onpash
Cashibo Pano-Tacanan acúshi rabë rabë ’imainun acúshi rabë ’imainun rabëribi mëcën uni xanu ochíti bari use umpáx
Cashinahua Pano-Tacanan besti dabe dabe inun bestichai dabe inun dabe meken juni ainbu badi uxe unpax
Sharanahua Pano-Tacanan pwïsti rapï rapwi non pwïsti rapï non rapïri mbïkï ndokopwindï ainpo kama pashnda shïdi oshï Ïndï
Yaminahua Pano-Tacanan wisti rawi mapo du’uhidi kĩrũ pashta shidi usi upash
Yawanahua Pano-Tacanan wisti ravi nukivini awĩhu kaman vari usi waka
Matis Pano-Tacanan epapa dabidpa mikantet dada chidabo wapa tanun usi waka
Mayoruna Pano-Tacanan abentsëc daër daër abentsëc daërraër mërante aocahentsëc dada chido wapa wësë; badi ubë acte
Kaxariri Pano-Tacanan wispi chavuta viki vãpi chaxpa wachi uxi waka
Poyanawa Pano-Tacanan wisti rabi aranan irabu awĩbu uchiti wari ũhũdi waka
Huarayo Pano-Tacanan oi becapeaya beabekapexima icuihato quiyahuisone exohi iponga iñawewa exeti ba’i eena
Tacana Pano-Tacanan piáda béta imíxa púxi pixíka déha epúna útsi idáti badi yávi
Amuzgo Oto-Manguean nkwí nndye ñenke on tzans’à tzanskù kítzue’ ndò’kwjión’ chi’ ndá
Matlatzinca Oto-Manguean rawi tenowi roxu rokunjowi rokut’a wetmaa xuwi sini chutata chunené tawi
Tlahuica Oto-Manguean mbla moo pjiu ñitjopikibaly cuit’aa wuendu wuetxu tsii t’untata t’unana ndaa
Zapotec Oto-Manguean tobi chupa chonna tapa gaayu’ nguiiu gunaa bi’cu’ gubidxa beeu nisa
Alabama Muskogean cháffàaka tòklo tótchìina óstàaka táłłàapi naani tayyi ifa hasi niłahasi oki
Chickasaw Muskogean chaffa toklo tochchí’na oshta talhlhá’pi nakni’ ihoo ofi’ hashi’ hashi’ oka’
Choctaw Muskogean achaffa tuklo tuchena ushta talhapi hattak ohoyo ofi hvshi hvshi oka
Koasati Muskogean chaffá:kan tóklon toccí:nan ostá:kan cahappá:kan ná:ni tayyí ifá hasí niłahasí okí
Mikasuki Muskogean lhaamin toklan tocciinan ostaakan cahappaakan nakni tayki iifi haasi niilhaasi ooki
Muskogee/Creek Muskogean hvmken hokkolen tuccenen osten cahkepen honvnwv hokte efv hvse hvresse owv
Yucatec Maya Mayan hun ka’a óox kan ho xiib ch’up peek’ k’iin ha’
Itzaj Maya Mayan jun ka ox kan job winik ixch’up pek’ k’in ja’
Kaqchikel Maya Mayan jun ka’i oxi’ kaji’ wo’o’ achin ixöq tz’i’ q’ij ya’
Ch'ol Mayan jump’ejl cha’p’ejl uxp’ejl chmp’ejl jo’p’ejl winic x’ixic ts’i’ ch’ujutat ja’
Chontal de Tabasco Mayan untu chatu uxtu chintu unk’a winik ixik wichu’ k’in ja’
Xavante Macro-Ge misi maparane si’ubdatõ aibâ pi’õ waptsã bâdâ a’amo â
Apinaye Macro-Ge pyxi axkrut axkrut nẽ pyxi my ni rop myt chũ’re
Bororo Macro-Ge mito pobe pobe ma me’tuja bo’kware imedu aredu arigao meri ari pobo
Kiowa Kiowa-Tewa pa yi pa’o yige ant’a ch’i ma pay p’ahy t’on
Tewa Kiowa-Tewa wî’ wíyeh poeyeh yôenu p’ą́ąnú sen kwee than p’óe p’oe
Cayuga Iroquoian sga:t dekni: ahsenh gei: hwihs ho:nhgweh ago:nhgweh so:wa:s ga:gwa:’ enhni’da:’ ohneganohs
Mohawk Iroquoian enhskat tekeni ahsen kayeri wisk ronkwe yakonkwe erhar karahkwa ehnita ohneka
Oneida Iroquoian úska tékeni áhsv kayé: wísk lukwé yakukwé é:lhal yotahala ohní:ta’ ohne:kánus
Onondaga Iroquoian sgá:dah dégnih áhsęh gayí:h hwíks hę:gweh gųnų:gweh jí:hah gáæhgwa:’ Ęhní’da’ ohnéganos
Seneca Iroquoian ska:t tekhni:h sëh ke:ih wis hökwe yakökwe ji:yäh kä:hkwa:’ ë:ní’ta:’ o:ne:ka’
Tuscarora Iroquoian ę:chi né:kti: áhsę hę’tahk wísk rę:kweh akę:kweh chír; gís híhte’ Í:ka’r à:we
Cherokee Iroquoian sagwu ta’li tso’i nvgi hisgi asgaya agehya gihli nvda nvda ama
Laurentian Iroquoian segada tigneny asche honnacon ouyscon aguehan aggouette aggayo isnay assomaha ame
Nottoway Iroquoian unte dekanee arsa hentag whisk enihā ekening cheer aheeta tethrāke auwa
Susquehannock Iroquoian onskat tiggene axe raiene wisck itae’aetsin achonhaeffti abgarijo oneega
Wyandot (Huron) Iroquoian skat tindee shenk andauk weeish aingahon; onnonhou utehke; ontehtian agnienon; yunyeno yaundeeshaw yaundeeshaw saundustee
Cochimi Hokan tejueg kuak kabiak nauwi huipe wami waki; huisin ethat epang konga tasi
Cocopah Hokan acit kauwak hûmok sûpap serap apa’ yesak inya hexa erkah
Havasupai Hokan asitam xuwaga humuga hop’a thetrapa apa pakri ahat inya’a hala aha
Kiliwa Hokan mecil hauwak hamiik minûk seltipûm nickume yiskô that inyaa hüla’a ehaa
Kumiai Hokan chin huak hamok chepap sarap ikuch sinya hut enya hallai ha
Maricopa Hokan cendig xavik xamok tcumpopk sarapk ipa sinyaok xatk inya xalyaa axa
Mojave Hokan seto havik hamok chumpap tharap iipa thinya’aak hatchoq anya haly’a aha
Paipai Hokan acitdek kowûk homuk hupak sirûp pa’hami mimusi xat enya hülû’ ahah
Quechan Hokan arsentik xavik xamok chumpop sarrap apa sinya’ak inya hula aha
Achumawi Hokan hamís haq cásti hatáma latú yálíyú amitéucan cahómaka col col as
Karok Hokan yitha áxak kuyraak piith itrôop ávans asiktávaan čišiih kuúsura kuúsura áas
Shasta Hokan č’á·mmu xúk’a xá·čki Í·ruhaiyu eč’u· awatíqa taríči á·psu čú·war čú·war á·čsa
Esselen Hokan pek ulax kxulef kxamakxus pekmakxala efexe tanoch canaco aci tomanisaci asanax
Central Pomo Hokan tato kaw sibo dukaw natsu’i baiya mata hayu da iweda ka
East Pomo Hokan kalī xotc xomka dol lεma gauk da haiu duwεlā xa
North Pomo Hokan cha ko subu tak shal ba mata hayu da diweda ka
Kashaya Hokan hku ko sibo mitcha tucho acha imata hayu da q’alasha qha
Inezeno Hokan paka’s iško’m masix skumu yitipaka’s ihi’y eneq huču qsi awa’y o’
Salinan Hokan t’ol xákic lápay k’íca’ oltááto luwá; taamá lets’é xutc káwe tats’óópi tc’a
Seri Hokan tazo coocj capxa czooxöc coitom ctam cmaam haxz zaah iizax hax
Highland Chontal Hokan anuli oguéh afanéh amalbu amagueh galxáns łagahno galtsiqui galhora galmuł’a lajah
Atakapa Gulf hannik hapal lat imatol nit icak kic cul lak kakau
Chitimacha Gulf unku upa kahitie meca hussa asi kitca waxni tcaa ku
Natchez Gulf wi∙tan a∙witi ne∙ti ginawi∙ti icpi∙ti tom tama∙ł wackop uwahci∙ł kun
Tunica Gulf saxku ili enixku maku siku cah nuxtci sa axcuk
Boruca Chibchan e’tse bú’k mang ba’kang i’kang abih ramróhk kak tebe du
Bribri Chibchan ek bök mañál tkël skél wëm alàköl dìwö siwö di
Guaymi Chibchan ti bu mai boko rigua nitocua meri ninguane so chi
Kuna Chibchan kwena po pa pakke attale tule ome ipe chichi tii
Teribe Chibchan kwara kwupö kwomya kwopkëng kwoshkëng domer walë dlo mok di
Arhuaco Chibchan Ín’gwi móga máikeni ma’kéiwa aséwa cherwa a’mía dzhwi tíma dzhe
Damana Chibchan ingwi mowa majgwa makegwa ihtigwa terua mena dzhúi saga dzhíra
Kogui Chibchan ézua mózhuña máiguñu mukkáiwa juchíwi sigí múnzhi niuñwi sáxa
Uwa Chibchan úbistija bukája bája bakája esía séra wiwara ra’sa si’jára rí’ja
Maleku Chibchan dooka ppángi poóse poquái otíni ochápac curíjurí toji siji ti
Rama Chibchan saiming puksak pangsak kunkunbi kwikwistar nikikna kuma ninik tukan sii
Bari Chibchan itoni isamini bititikori dari biori jããni chibajri shimini
Chimila Chibchan kúttenda búna máana mbríijée’e kúttenda jéemekénta sáawiri júngwiri ndíngga máamasu ndittake
Akawaio Cariban teginno azaro osorowo warawok ori weyu nuno tuna
Arara Cariban anane adak adak anane ugon paumie titi nuna paru
Atruahi Cariban awyni typytyna takynyna wykyry weri wyi nenwe syna
Carib Cariban o’win oko oruwa wokyry woryi weju nuno tuna
Macushi Cariban tíwing sawkínay selwa walayzo wílé wei kapoi tuna
Txikao Cariban nane arak araknane ugwon petkom chichi nuno ga
Waiwai Cariban cheoñe asaki soroau kiri wosi kami nuñe tuna
Wayana Cariban pəkəna hakəne əheruwa əluwa wəlii sisi nunuwə tuna
Yukpa Cariban ükúma kósa koséra küpa voré’pa vícho kúno kúna
Bakairi Cariban tokalə azagə azagə tokalə uguõdo pekodo xixi nunə paru
Carijona Cariban te’nyi saka’nari se’rauri guri werichi be’i nu’na tu’na
Kaxuiana Cariban tiwin asakri asakri tiwinero to’to woresi esese nuno tuna
Kuikuro Cariban aetsi takeko tilako toto itãõ guiti ngune tunga
Maquiritari Cariban toni akə hedauə sotto wiri chi nuna tona
Arikara Caddoan áxku pítkux táwit’ čiití’iš šíhux wiíta sápat xaátš šakuúnu páh tstoóxu’
Caddo Caddoan wísts’i’ bít daháw’ hiwi’ díssikían shúuwi’ náttih dìitsi’ saku niish kuukuh
Pawnee Caddoan ásku pítku táwit skítiks síhuks piíta tsápaat asakis sakuru páh kiítsu’
Wichita Caddoan chi’as wits taw takwits iskwi’its we’its kahika kitsiya sakita waw gits
Jicarilla Apache Athabaskan dałaa naakii kái’ii dįį’ii ashdle’ haskįįyįį izdzáníí chíníí ya’íí tł’é’na’áí kóh
Western Apache Athabaskan dałaa naki táági dįį’i ashdla’i ndeeń izdzán góshé; łichánee ya’áí tł’é’gona’áí
Navajo Athabaskan łáá’íí naaki táá’ dįį’ ashdla’ hastiin asdzání łééchąą’í shá tł’éhonaa’éí
Ahtna Athabaskan ts’ełk’ey nadaeggi ta dinc’ii ałts’eni ciił ts’akae łic’ae saa baldzaey tuu
Carrier Athabaskan ilho nanki taaggi dunghi kwulai’ dene ts’ekoo lhike
Chipewyan Athabaskan Įłághε náke taghε dįghi solághε dεnεyu ts’έkwi łį sa tεdhεzaέ ta
Gwich'in Athabaskan ihłak neekaii tik dàang ihłokwinlì’ dinjii oonjit łaii srii’ oozrii’ chuu
Klatskanie Athabaskan łi natke take tunchi łiqunnughan xunani w’ati łin ghałi ghałi tu
Koyukon Athabaskan k’eeł neteekk’ee tokk’ee denk’ee k’eełts’ednaale denaa sołt’aanh łeek so dołt’ol tu
Sarcee Athabaskan tłìk’azá ákíyi táyk’í diitc’íí gúùt’áá dìná, k’òt’íní’i ts’ìká tłítc’á chataghá yilnágha too
Hupa Athabaskan la’ nahx taaq dink chwoola’ den; xhosdai aat ling wha xhatlewha to
Kato Athabaskan lhaa’haa’ naakaa’ taak’ naakaa’naakaa’ laa’saanii din tc’eek naalhghii shaa naaghai too
Mattole Athabaskan ləiha’ nakxəh daak’əh dintc’yəh djikxla’ naat’łíí shaa shaa too
Tolowa Athabaskan hla’ naxai taqe dunch’i shwela chusne trunxai hlen xwet’e chagutlsri tutlxut
Tututni Athabaskan łasha naxe take tunchi shwula tisne tsaxe łi xashi chaghalsi tulxata
Wailaki Athabaskan lhai’haa’ naakaa’ taak denky’en daashkalaa’ kaat’iinin tc’eektcin naat’ii shaa kit’eeshaa too
Haida Athabaskan sgwáansang sdáng hlgúnahl stánsang tléihl Íihlangaa jáadaa xa juuyáay kúng gántl
Tlingit Athabaskan tléix’ déix nús’k dax’ón keijín káh shawút kèitl gugán dís Ísh
Achagua Arawakan baque chámai matálii washiaáli Íina áuli cáiwia quéerri shiátai
Baniwa of Guainía Arawakan patsià enaba terètsi Ênami néeyawa tsîinu amóshi ashída wéni
Curripaco Arawakan pada jamada madalida likuadaka aachia inaro tsino heri keri ooni
Guarequena Arawakan peya damtatha mabaitalisa inauli inautam chino kamoi keti one
Piapoco Arawakan abéíri pucháiba máisiba báinúaca athìari inanái áuri Èeri’ quéeri úni
Resigaro Arawakan sagú migaakú migaakú sagú po’tsáávágaahí atsáagí ináadó Íiní jáhí keégí jooní
Tariano Arawakan páada yamáda manalída kehpúnipe tsiari Ínaru chínu keri keri uúni
Yucuna Arawakan pajluhuája ijamá huéeji quéele pa’ú quéele achiñá inanáru jáahuipirácaná caamú quéeri júuni
Arawak Arawakan ábą bian kabun biti wadili hiaro péero hadali kati uini
Guajiro Arawakan wane piama apünüin pienchi hashichi jiérü erü ka’í kashí wüin
Garifuna Arawakan ában biáma ürua gádürü eyeri hiñanru aunli weyu kati duna
Taino Arawakan heketi yamoca canocum bibiti iro inaru aon guey karaya ni
Amuesha Arawakan paterr epa ma’pa pa’tats yacma peno ochec atsne’ arrorr
Ashaninka Arawakan aparo apite maava shirampari tsinane otsiti poreatsiri cashiri nija
Asheninka Arawakan aparoni apiti maawa shirampari tsinani otsitsi oorya cashiri jiñaa
Machiguenga Arawakan paniro piteni mavani tovaini surari tsinane otsiti poreatsiri kashiri nia
Mehinaku Arawakan pauitsa mepiama kamayukule erináu teneru awajalukuma kame keri one
Nomachiguenga Arawakan patiro pite maba otsibasati sërari tsinane otsiti paba manchacori nija
Paresi Arawakan hatita hinama hanama ena ohiro kacholo kamai kaimare one
Piro/Yine Arawakan satupje gepi mapa gepkoxamkoje exi setu abe kaxi airi gonu
Waura Arawakan pãwã mepĩjãwã kamaukula enizha tinezhu awaulukumã kami kezhi uni
Yawalapiti Arawakan paua purziñama kamayunkula örinau tináu kame keri u
Abenaki Algonquian bazegw niz nas yaw nôlan zanôba; gizôba behanem alemos oradia gizos gizos nebi
Lenape Algonquian nkwëti niša naxa newa nalan lënu xkwe alëm; mwekane kišux nipahëm mpi
Maliseet Algonquian pesq; neqt nis nihi new nan skitap ehpit olomuss kisuhs nipawset ’samaqan
Micmac Algonquian newt tápu síst néw nán jínm épit lmúj nákúset tepkunset samqwan
Munsee Algonquian ngwut níisha nxáh néewa náalan lúnuw oxkwéew mwaakaneew kíishooxkw niipáahum mbúy
Algonquin Algonquian pejig nìj niswi new nànan ininì ikwe animosh kìzis tibik-kìzis nibì
Atikamekw Algonquian peikw nicw nicto new niaran iriniw iskwew atimw kicikaw pisimw tipiskaw pisimw nipi
Cree Algonquian peyak nîso nisto newo nîyânan napew iskwew atim pîsim tipiskâw pîsim nîpîy
Illinois-Miami Algonquian nkoti niishwi niswi niiwi yaalaanwi alenia mitemohsa alemwa kiilhswa kiilhswa nipi
Kickapoo Algonquian nekoti niiswi neθwi niewi niananwi inenia ihkweea anemwa kiiseθwa tepehkiiha nepi
Montagnais Algonquian peiku nishu nishtu neu patetat napeu ishkueu atemu pishum tipishkau-pishum nipi
Naskapi Algonquian paaikw niisu nistu naaw pitaataahch naapaaw iskwaaw atim piisim tipiskaaw-piisim nipiiy
Ojibwe Algonquian bezhig niizh niswi niiwin naanan inini ikwe animosh giizis dibik-giizis nibi
Potawatomi Algonquian ngod nish nswe nyaw nyanin nine kwé numosh kizes tpukizes mbish
Sauk Algonquian nekoti nîshwi nethwi nyêwi nyânanwi neniwa ihkwêwa anemôha kîshethwa tepehkî-kîshethwa nepi
Shawnee Algonquian nekoti niišwi nθwi nyeewaa nyaalanwi hileni kweewa wii’ši kiišθwa tepeki kiišθwa nepi
Arapaho Algonquian ceesey niis neeso yein yoo3on hinen hisei he3 hiisiis biikousiis nec
Gros Ventre Algonquian čee3iy nii3 nee3 yeen yooton iinen ii3ei ot hiisiis biikohiisiis neč
Blackfoot Algonquian ni’t náátsi nioókska niisó niisito nínaawa aakííwa imitááwa ki’sómma ko’komíki’somma aohkíí
Cheyenne Algonquian na’ėstse néše na’he neve nóho hetane hé’e hotame; oeškeso éše’he taa’é-eše’he mahpe
Wiyot Algonquian kúcad dítad díkhad diyóhwad wehsoghálad kúwi’ kabúč wóyic tóma dacawalóyalakwi húla
Yurok Algonquian kolin ni’iy nahksey cho’oney meruh peyerk wenchokws ch’ish wonewsleg wonewsleg

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rivet, Paul. 1924. Langues Américaines III: Langues de l’Amérique du Sud et des Antilles. In: Antoine Meillet and Marcel Cohen (ed.), Les Langues du Monde, Volume 16, 639–712. Paris: Collection Linguistique.
  2. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2019). "Glottolog". 4.1. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Gilij, Filippo Salvatore. 1965. Ensayo de historia Americana. Spanish translation by Antonio Tovar. (Fuentes para la Historia Colonial de Venezuela, Volumes 71–73.) Caracas: Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de la Historia. First published as Saggio di storia americana; o sia, storia naturale, civile e sacra de regni, e delle provincie spagnuole di Terra-Ferma nell’ America Meridionale descritto dall’ abate F. S. Gilij. Rome: Perigio [1780–1784].
  4. ^ Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo. 1784–87. Idea dell’universo: che contiene la storia della vita dell’uomo, elementi cosmografici, viaggio estatico al mondo planetario, e storia de la terra e delle lingue. Cesena: Biasini.
  5. ^ Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo. 1800–1805. Catálogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas y numeracion, division, y clases de estas segun la diversidad de sus idiomas y dialectos, Volume I (1800): Lenguas y naciones Americanas. Madrid: Administracion del Real Arbitrio de Beneficencia.
  6. ^ Brinton, Daniel G. 1891. The American race. New York: D. C. Hodges.
  7. ^ a b Mason, J. Alden. 1950. The languages of South America. In: Julian Steward (ed.), Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 6, 157–317. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143.) Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  8. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  9. ^ Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto. 1998. El Ecuador interandino y occidental antes de la conquista castellana. Quito: Abya-Yala. First published Quito: Editorial Ecuatoriana [1940–1945].
  10. ^ Tovar, Antonio. 1961. Catálogo de las lenguas de América del Sur: enumeración, con indicaciones tipológicas, bibliografía y mapas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.
  11. ^ Tovar, Antonio and Consuelo Larrucea de Tovar. 1984. Catálogo de las lenguas de América del Sur. Madrid: Gredos.
  12. ^ Suárez, Jorge. 1974. South American Indian languages. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia 17. 105–112.
  13. ^ a b Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 978-3-11-025513-3.
  14. ^ Mauricio Swadesh (1987). Tras la huella lingüística de la prehistoria. UNAM. p. 114. ISBN 978-968-36-0368-5.
  15. ^ Greenberg, Joseph Harold (1987). Language in the Americas. ISBN 9780804713153.
  16. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/12/science/earliest-americans-arrived-in-3-waves-not-1-dna-study-finds.html
  17. ^ Lyle Campbell (1997-10-23). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 18–25. ISBN 978-0-19-509427-5.
  18. ^ "Native Languages of the Americas". native-languages.org. Retrieved December 31, 2019.

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