1st Louisiana Native Guard (CSA)

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For the Union Army regiment, see 1st Louisiana Native Guard (USA). For Disambiguation, see 1st Louisiana Native Guard.
1st Louisiana Native Guard (Confederate)
Louisiana Feb 11 1861.svg
Active

May 29, 1861–February 15, 1862 March 24-April 25, 1862

(Field officers commissioned May 29, 1861)
Country  Confederate States of America
Allegiance  Louisiana
Branch CSA FLAG 4.3.1861-21.5.1861.svg Confederate militia
Type Infantry
Size 1,135
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Colonel Felix Labatut
Lt. Colonel Henry D. Ogden
Major S. St. Cyr
"Defenders of the Native Land"
New orleans 1862.jpg
The Native Guards were on duty and at their post when Federal ships arrived opposite New Orleans, April 25, 1862[1]

The 1st Louisiana Native Guard (CSA) was a Confederate Louisiana militia of free persons of color formed in 1861[2] in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was disbanded in February 1862; some of the members joined the Union Army's 1st Louisiana Native Guard regiment (later the 73rd Regiment Infantry U.S. Colored Troops).

Confederate Louisiana militia[edit]

Shortly after Louisiana's secession, Governor Thomas Overton Moore issued pleas for troops on April 17 and April 21, 1861. In response to the governor's request, a committee of ten prominent New Orleans free blacks called a meeting at the Catholic Institute on April 22. About two thousand people attended the meeting where muster lists were opened, with about 1,500 free blacks signing up. Governor Moore accepted the services of these men as part of the state's miltia.[3]

The new militia regiment was formed during May 1861, consisting mostly of free persons of color Creole French Speakers (gens de couleur). At that time, an estimated 10,000 African American residents of the state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans had gained their freedom. On May 29, 1861, Governor Moore appointed three white officers as commanders of the regiment, and company commanders were appointed from among the free blacks of the regiment.[4]

The militia unit was the first of any North American unit to have African-American officers.[5] This regiment was called the Louisiana Native Guard. Though ten per cent of its members would later join the Union Army's 1st Louisiana Native Guard, the two were separate military units.

Activities[edit]

The Native Guards were volunteers, and as such supplied their own arms and uniforms. These were displayed in a grand review of troops in New Orleans on November 23, 1861, and again on January 8, 1862.[6] They offered their services to escort Union prisoners (captured at the First Battle of Bull Run) through New Orleans. Confederate General David Twiggs declined the offer, but thanked them for the "promptness with which they answered the call."[7] The Louisiana State Legislature passed a law in January 1862 that reorganized the militia into only “...free white males capable of bearing arms… ”.[8]

The Native Guards regiment was affected by this law. It was forced to disband on February 15, 1862, when the new law took effect. "Their demise was only temporary, however, for Governor Moore reinstated the Native Guards on March 24 after the Federal navy under Admiral David G. Farragut entered the Mississippi River." [9] As regular Confederate forces under Major General Mansfield Lovell abandoned New Orleans, the militia units were left to fend for themselves. The Native Guards were again, and in finality, ordered to disband by General John L. Lewis, of the Louisiana Militia, on April 25, 1862, as Federal ships arrived opposite the city. General Lewis cautioned them to hide their arms and uniforms before returning home.[10]

Notable members[edit]

  • Felix Labatut (Colonel)- State senator, soldier, and signer of Louisiana's declaration of secession.[11]
  • Armand Lanusse (Captain)- Soldier, educator, writer. The prime motivator in the formation of the Native Guards Regiment.[12]
  • Jamaican-born Lieutenant Morris W. Morris, who served as an officer in the Confederate Louisiana militia regiment and subsequently served for six weeks in the Union Native Guard regiment, was unique in that he was of Jewish ancestry, making him both the only Black Jewish Confederate officer and the only Black Jewish Union officer [1]. He later became a famous actor as Lewis Morrison and his granddaughters, Joan, Constance and Barbara Bennett, were actresses whose Black ancestry was never revealed.

Companies[edit]

Companies of the Confederate 1st Louisiana Native Guard prior to disbanding in 1862:

Company Name Commander Peak Strength Notes
Native Guards Capt. St. Albin Sauvinet 85 men
Savary Native Guards Capt. Joseph Joly 85 men
Beauregard Native Guards Capt. Louis Golis 52 men
Young Creole Native Guards Capt. Ludger B. Boquille 76 men
Labatut Native Guards Capt. Edgar C. Davis 110 men
Mississippi Native Guards Capt. Marcelle Dupart 64 men
Economy Native Guards Capt. Henry Louis Rey 100 men
Meschacebe Native Guards Capt. Armand Lanusse 90 men
Order Native Guards Capt. Charles Sentmanat 90 men
Crescent City Native Guards Capt. Virgil Bonseigneur 63 men
Perseverance Native Guards Capt. Noel J. Bacchus 60 men
Louisiana Native Guards Capt. Louis Lainez 75 men
Ogden Native Guards Capt. Alcide Lewis 85 men a.k.a. Turcos Native Guards
Plauche Guards Capt. Jordan Noble 100 men
Total[13] 1,135 men

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See "An Ex Native Guard" and "My Tardy Compatriots," New York Times, November 5, 1862.
  2. ^ http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab10.htm
  3. ^ Louisiana Fast Facts and Trivia
  4. ^ Louisiana Fast Facts and Trivia
  5. ^ Louisiana Fast Facts and Trivia
  6. ^ Bergeron, Arhur W., Jr. Louisianans in the Civil War, "Louisiana's Free Men of Color in Gray", University of Missouri Press, 2002, p. 105-106.
  7. ^ Jno. G. Devereux to J. L. Lewis, September 29, 1861, in War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 4, Volume 1, 625.
  8. ^ Official copy of the militia law of Louisiana, adopted by the state legislature, Jan. 23, 1862
  9. ^ James G. Hollandsworth, The Louisiana Native Guards, 8.
  10. ^ Hollandsworth, ibid, 9-10.
  11. ^ Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of the State of Louisiana, 1861 (New Orleans, 1861), 231-232.
  12. ^ Mary Niall Mitchell, Raising Freedom's Child, 43; Daily Dispatch (Richmond, Va.), June 1, 1861.
  13. ^ Bergeron, Arthur W., Jr. Louisianans in the Civil War, "Louisiana's Free Men of Color in Gray", University of Missouri Press, 2002, p. 106-107.
  • Hollandsworth, James G., The Louisiana Native Guards, LSU Press, 1996.
  • Tretheway, Natasha. Native Guard.Houghton-Mifflin, 2006.