Brown Sugar (The Rolling Stones song)
|Single by The Rolling Stones|
|from the album Sticky Fingers|
|B-side||"Bitch"/"Let It Rock" (UK)
|Released||16 April 1971 (UK)
7 May 1971 (US)
|Recorded||2–4 December 1969, Muscle Shoals Sound Studio, Muscle Shoals, Alabama|
|Genre||Hard rock, rock and roll, blues rock|
|Label||Rolling Stones Records|
|Writer(s)||Jagger / Richards|
|Certification||BPI (UK) Silver, 1 November 1975|
|The Rolling Stones singles chronology|
"Brown Sugar" is a song by The Rolling Stones. It is the opening track and lead single from their 1971 album Sticky Fingers. Rolling Stone magazine ranked it No. 495 on their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time and at No. 5 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitar Songs of All Time.
Inspiration and recording
Though credited, like most of their compositions, to the singer/guitarist pair of Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, the song was primarily the work of Jagger, who wrote it sometime during the filming of Ned Kelly in 1969. Originally recorded over a three-day period at Muscle Shoals Sound Studio in Muscle Shoals, Alabama from 2–4 December 1969, the song was not released until over a year later due to legal wranglings with the band's former label, though at the request of guitarist Mick Taylor, they debuted the number live during the infamous concert at Altamont on 6 December. The song was written by Jagger with Marsha Hunt in mind; Hunt was Jagger's secret girlfriend and mother of his first child Karis. It is also claimed it was written with Claudia Lennear in mind. Claudia made this claim on BBC's Radio 4 (25 February 2014, Today programme), saying that it was written with her in mind because at the time when it was written, Mick Jagger used to hang around with her.
In the documentary film Gimme Shelter (1970), an alternative mix of the song is played back to the band while they relax in a hotel in Alabama.
The song, with its prominent blues-rock riffs, dual horn/guitar instrumental break, and danceable rock rhythms, is representative of the Stones' definitive middle period and the tough, bluesy hard-rock most often associated with the group. In the liner notes to the 1993 compilation album Jump Back, Jagger says, "The lyric was all to do with the dual combination of drugs and girls. This song was a very instant thing, a definite high point." The song is in compound AABA form.
In the Rolling Stone interview (14 December 1995, RS 723) with Jagger, he spoke at length about the song, its inspiration and success — including claiming credit for writing the lyrics. He attributed the success of the song to a "good groove". After noting that the lyrics could mean so many lewd subjects, he again noted that the combination of those subjects, the lyrical ambiguity was partially why the song was considered successful. He noted, "That makes it... the whole mess thrown in. God knows what I'm on about on that song. It's such a mishmash. All the nasty subjects in one go... I never would write that song now." When Jann Wenner asked him why, Jagger replied, "I would probably censor myself. I'd think, 'Oh God, I can't. I've got to stop. I can't just write raw like that.'"
The lyrical subject matter has often been a point of interest and controversy. Described by rock critic Robert Christgau as "a rocker so compelling that it discourages exegesis", "Brown Sugar"'s popularity indeed often overshadowed its scandalous lyrics, which were essentially a pastiche of a number of taboo subjects, including slavery, interracial sex, cunnilingus, and less distinctly, sadomasochism, lost virginity, rape, and heroin.
An alternative version was recorded on 18 December 1970, at Olympic Studios in London, after (or during) a birthday party for Richards. It features appearances by Al Kooper on piano, and Eric Clapton on slide guitar. The alternative version is widely available on bootleg recordings. Richards considered releasing this version on Sticky Fingers, mostly for its more spontaneous atmosphere, but decided on the original.
A simulated live performance from 1971 is often shown on TV in place of a music video. The performance, originally broadcast on Top of the Pops, features Jagger singing a live vocal to the instrumental backing from the studio release. Jagger's delivery is slightly different from the recorded version and overdubbed backing vocals by Jagger and Richards are not present.
"Brown Sugar" was eventually released in May 1971 as the first single from the album, becoming a No. 1 hit in the United States and Canada and a No. 2 hit in the United Kingdom, and has since become a classic rock radio staple. While the American single featured only "Bitch" as the B-side, the British single featured that track plus a live rendition of Chuck Berry's "Let It Rock", recorded at the University of Leeds during the 1971 tour of the UK. In the United States, Billboard ranked it as the No. 16 song for 1971.
In the UK the single was originally issued in mono using a now very rarely heard bespoke mono mix. This mono mix has never been used on any compilation.
The song was performed routinely during the Stones' 1970 European Tour, occupying a prominent spot near the end of the set list even though audiences were unfamiliar with it. It eventually opened the famed 1972 American Tour shows and has been a Stones concert stalwart since.
When the Stones perform "Brown Sugar" live, Jagger often changes the lyrics from, "Just like a young girl should", to, "Just like a young man should." The line, "Hear him whip the women just around midnight", is often changed to the less offensive, "You shoulda heard him just around midnight." This is evident in their live albums Love You Live, Flashpoint, Live Licks and Shine a Light. This change even occurs on the version recorded at Richards' birthday party.
The song is also notable for being the first single released on Rolling Stones Records (catalogue number RS-19100) and is one of the two Stones songs (along with "Wild Horses") licensed to both the band and former manager Allen Klein (a result of various business disagreements) resulting in its inclusion on the compilation album Hot Rocks 1964–1971. "Brown Sugar" is also included on the most significant latter-day Rolling Stones compilations, Jump Back, Forty Licks and GRRR!.
- "The Top Hard Rock Songs". Allmusic.
- "Certified Awards Search". BPI. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Brown Sugar". Rolling Stone. 9 December 2004 (accessed 25 April 2007).
- "Jagger Remembers". Rolling Stone. 14 December 1995 (accessed 25 April 2007).
- Covach, John (2005), "Form in Rock Music: A Primer", in Stein, Deborah, Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press, p.74-75, ISBN 0-19-517010-5 .
- "Jagger Remembers". Rolling Stone. 14 December 1995.
- Robert Christgau "Rolling Stones". The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. 1976 (accessed 24 June 2007).
- Unterberger, Richie. The Rolling Stones "Brown Sugar". allmusic. 2007 (accessed 25 April 2007).
- The Database "Brown Sugar". Time Is On Our Side. 2007 (accessed 25 April 2007).
- Billboard Year-End Hot 100 singles of 1971
"Joy to the World" by Three Dog Night
|US Billboard Hot 100 number one single
29 May 1971 (two weeks)
"Want Ads" by The Honey Cone
"Joy to the World" by Three Dog Night
|Canadian RPM 100 number-one single
5 June 1971 (three weeks)
"It Don't Come Easy" by Ringo Starr