By-product

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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction. It is not the primary product or service being produced. In the context of production, a by-product can be defined as the 'output from a joint production process that is minor in quantity and/or net realizable value (NVR) when compared to the main products'.[1] Because they are deemed to have no influence on reported financial results, by-products do not receive allocations of joint costs. By-products also by convention are not inventoried, but the NRV from by-products is typically recognized as 'other income' or as a reduction of joint production processing costs when the by-product is produced.[2] A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste.

IEA offers the following definition for the purpose of life-cycle assessment:[3]

... main products, co-products (which involve similar revenues to the main product), by-products (which result in smaller revenues), and waste products (which provide little or no revenue).

Major by-products[edit]

Animal sources[edit]

See also: Animal product

Vegetation[edit]

Minerals and petrochemicals[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wouters, Mark; Selto, Frank H.; Hilton, Ronald W.; Maher, Michael W. (2012): Cost Management: Strategies for Business Decisions, International Edition, McGraw-Hill, p. 535.
  2. ^ World Trade Organization (2004): United States - Final dumping determination on softwood lumber from Canada, WT/DS264/AB/R, 11 August 2004.
  3. ^ BIOMITRE Technical Manual, Horne, R. E. and Matthews, R., November 2004