Citizens' Action Party
|Citizens' Action Party|
|President||Olivier Pérez González|
|Secretary-General||Olga Marta Sánchez Oviedo|
|Vicepresident||Marcela Guerrero Campos|
|Treasurer||Leda Zamora Chaves|
|Colors||Yellow and Red|
|Politics of Costa Rica
The Citizens' Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Ciudadana; commonly abbreviated as PAC) is a left-leaning political party in Costa Rica. In 2014, PAC presidential candidate Luis Guillermo Solís earned the most votes in the general election, causing his main rival to cease campaigning, making Solís the president.
Its platform is based on encouraging citizen participation and involvement in politics. One of its guiding ideals is to fight against corruption, arguing that it is one of the main causes of under development and voter apathy. The party took a leading role in the failed campaign against Costa Rica's membership of the Central American Free Trade Agreement.
- 1 History and elections
- 2 Platform
- 3 PAC members
- 4 References
- 5 External links
History and elections
Founding and 2002 election
PAC was founded in December 2000 by several dissidents from Costa Rica's two traditional parties, the National Liberation Party and the Social Christian Unity Party. Originally an anti-corruption party, it startled the Costa Rican political arena with a very strong showing in the 2002 general elections. In the presidential vote, party founder and candidate Ottón Solís was able to secure 26% of the votes – an unprecedented amount for a third party in Costa Rica – and force a runoff between the PLN and PUSC.
The party won 21.9% of the popular vote and 14 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly, making it the third strongest political force in the legislature. A few months later, however, after a series of internal disputes, six of the party's 14 deputies resigned from the party, leaving PAC with only eight seats.
In the February 5, 2006 parliamentary election, the party won 17 out of 57 seats. Ottón Solís ran for president again, losing to the PLN's Oscar Arias Sanchez by less than .2% of the votes. Arias only won by a few thousand votes over the 40 percent threshold required to avoid a runoff. The number of spoiled ballots was larger than the margin between Solís and Arias.
After the 2006 election, Ótton Solís took a year away from politics to teach in the United States. Former PAC Secretary General Luis Guillermo Solís' name began being circulated at meetings of the "ungroup," an informal gathering of PAC officials, led by former deputy Alberto Salom. Several PAC officials wanted Luis Guillermo Solís to run as a deputy in San José and as a vice presidential candidate in 2010.
In the 2010 election, Ottón Solís ran for his third and final time as president. Laura Chinchilla of the PLN won, but Ottón Solís finished with 25.2% of the votes. PAC won the second fraction in the Legislative Assembly with 11 deputies elected. Six candidates won municipal elections in the rural communities of Aserrí, Matina, Hojancha, Cañas, Los Chiles y Guatuso.
In 2013, PAC held its second national convention. It was an open convention in which any citizen could vote, despite party affiliation. Four candidates vied for the primary to represent PAC in the 2014 national elections: Epsy Campbell Barr, Juan Carlos Mendoza, Luis Guillermo Solís, and Ronald Solís Bolaños, with Luis Guillermo Solís winning 35% of the votes.
While cleaning up corruption has been one of PAC's main goals since its creation, Solís has added to the party's platform. He wants to build infrastructure, bolster Costa Rica's universal health care and social security systems and push for environmentally friendly policies. Historically, PAC has opposed free trade agreements such as CAFTA, which Solís claims is improperly implemented. In addition, PAC claims that the country's tax system is inadequate, saying that more "progressive" system is needed.
Unlike other Costa Rican parties, PAC is not affiliated with an international organization. Nevertheless, it maintains informal relations with other progressive parties. Ottón Solís has independently met with Ricardo Lagos of the Socialist Party of Chile during a visit to Costa Rica, Cristina Fernández, and members of the Democratic Party of the United States.
2014-2018 PAC Legislative Assembly Deputies
2010-2014 PAC Legislative Assembly Deputies
|2010-2014 PAC Legislative Assembly Deputies|
|Name (Last, First)||Region|
|Venegas Renauld, María Eugenia||San José|
|Mendoza García, Juan Carlos||San José|
|Muñoz, Carmen||San José|
|Arias Navarro, Gustavo||San José|
|Manrique Oviedo, Néstor||Alajuela|
|Name (Last, First)||Municipality|
|Morales Mora, Víctor||Aserrí|
|Álvaro, Solano||Los Chiles|
Other notable members of PAC
|Notable Members of PAC|
|Name (Last, First)||Notes|
|Barr, Epsy Campbell||Deputy 2002-2006 and 2014-2018, party president 2005-2009, politician, civil rights advocate|
|Blanco, Wilfrido||Vice-Minister of Education Abel Pacheco administration (2002-2006). Former PLN member.|
|Carazo Zeledón, Rodrigo Alberto||National Ombudsman 1993-1997, and deputy 2002-2006. Son of ex-president Rodrigo Carazo Odio|
|Chacón Echeverría, Ana Helena||Minister of Public Safety (Abel Pacheco administration (2002-2006), deputy (2006-2010), daughter of Luis Manuel Chacón (founding member of PUSC), Vice President (2014).|
|Echeverría, Alberto Salom||president of the Costa Rican Federation of University Students 1974-1975, vice president of National University of Costa Rica 1995-2000, deputy for PAC (2006-2010).|
|Escalante, Alberto Cañas||founding member of PAC, secretary of the Founding Junta of the Second Republic 1948, United Nations ambassador 1948-1949, president Editorial Costa Rica, deputy 1962-1966, Legislative Assembly President 1994-1998, Prime Minister 1970-1974.|
|Fallas, Helio||Minister of Planning Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier administration (1990-1994), Minister of Housing during Abel Pacheco administration (2002-2006), Vice-President, 2014. Former PUSC member|
|Fonseca Corrales, Dr. Elizabeth||historian, professor Universidad de Costa Rica. 2010 leader of PAC fraction in National Assembly.|
|Miranda, Dr. Guido||Executive President Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. Former PLN member.|
|Mendoza García, Juan Carlos||deputy 2010-2014, Factional President 2010-1011, and Legislative Assembly President 2011-2012.|
|Morales Mora, Víctor||Minister of Labor Miguel Ángel Rodríguez administration (1998-2002), and deputy (Calderón Fournier administration) 1990-1994, Aserrí Mayor. Former PUSC member.|
|Penón Góngora, Margarita||first lady of Costa Rica 1986-1990 (ex-wife of Óscar Arias) and deputy (2002-2006). Replaced by Aguilar Mirambell in 2005 after resignation.|
|Salas Bonilla, Jorge Antonio||Mayor of Tibás Cantón 2007-2011.|
|Solano, Hernán||Vice-Minister of Youth Abel Pacheco administration (2002-2006). Former PUSC member.|
|Ottón Solís, Fallas||Minister of Planning Óscar Arias administration (1986-1988), deputy (Figueres administration) 1994-1998, founding member of PAC, three-time presidential candidate for PAC, deputy 2014-2018.|
|Solís Bolaños, Ronald||deputy with PAC 2006-2010, anti-CAFTA activist, businessman. Ran in PAC presidential primary in 2013.|
|Solís Rivera, Luis Guillermo||Politician, historian, professor of Latin American Studies. Ex PLN Secretary General. President Elect 2014-2018.|
|Valerín Rodríguez, Gloria||deputy with PUSC 2002-2006, and Director of Technical Services Legislative Assembly.|
|Villasuso, Juan Manuel||President of Costa Rican Institute of Electricity Luis Alberto Monge administration (1982-1983), Minister of Planning Luis Alberto Monge administration (1983-1986). Former PLN member.|
- Oviedo, Estaban (8 April 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís: El profesor desconocido que, en tres años, llegó a ser el presidente" [Luis Guillermo Solís: The unknown professor who, in three years, became president]. La Nación (San Jose) (in Spanish) (San José). Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Ortiz de Zárate (editor), Roberto (March 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís Rivera, CIDOB" (in Spanish). Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Agüero R., Mercedes (18 March 2014). "Diálogo y acuerdo, las palabras de moda en futuros diputados". La Nacion (Costa Rica). Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Dyer, Zach (3 November 2013). "Costa Rican presidential candidate Luis Guillermo Solís: 'It's not going to be business as usual'". The Tico Times. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Díaz, Luis Edo. (27 January 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís llama a sus seguidores a 'cambiar la historia' patria" [Luis Guillermo Solís calls on his supporters to 'change history' for the country]. La Nación (in Spanish) (San José). Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Sequeira, Aaron (20 February 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís propone evitar firma de nuevos tratados comerciales" [Luis Guillermo Solís proposes avoiding the signing of new free trade agreements]. La Nación (in Spanish) (San José). Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Leiton, Patricia (24 March 2014). "PAC haría reforma fiscal, impuesto por impuesto" [PAC will make fiscal reforms, tax by tax]. La Nacion (in Spanish) (San José). Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Felicita Argentina a presidente-electo de Costa Rica" [Argentina congratulates president-elect of Costa Rica]. La Prensa Latina (in Spanish) (Havana). 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Ruiz Ramón, Gerardo (9 October 2013). "PAC ofrece candidatura a la vicepresidencia a Ana Helena Chacón". La Nacion (in Spanish) (San José, Costa Rica). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- diputados Accessed on Nov 22, 2007.
- Official website (Spanish)