Daredevil (Marvel Comics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Daredevil (Marvel comics))
Jump to: navigation, search
"Daredevil (comics)" redirects here. For the 1930s-1940s character, see Daredevil (Lev Gleason Publications).
Daredevil
Promotional art for Daredevil vol. 2, #65 (Sept. 2004), by Greg Land.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Daredevil #1 (April 1964)
Created by Stan Lee
Bill Everett
In-story information
Alter ego Matthew Michael "Matt" Murdock
Team affiliations S.H.I.E.L.D.
The Chaste
Nelson & Murdock
Defenders
The Hand
New Avengers
Partnerships Black Widow
Elektra
Abilities Excellent athlete
Skilled detective and tracker
Expert marksman and interrogator
Master acrobat, martial artist, and gymnast
Radar sense
Superhuman senses
Daredevil
The first issue of Daredevil (April 1964) features the hero in his original costume. Splash-page art by Jack Kirby (penciler) and Bill Everett (inker).[1]
Series publication information
Format Ongoing series
Genre Superhero
Publication date (vol. 1)
April 1964 – October 1998
(vol. 2)
November 1998 – August 2009
(vol. 3)
September 2011 – April 2014
(vol. 4)
May 2014
Number of issues (vol. 1): 381 (#1–380 plus #-1) and 10 Annuals
(vol. 2): 119
(vol. 1 cont.): 13
(vol. 3): 37 (#1–36 plus #10.1) and 1 Annual
(vol. 4): 9 (#1-7 plus #1.50 and #0.1 as of October 2014 cover date)
Creative team
Writer(s) (vol. 1)
Stan Lee, Roy Thomas, Steve Gerber, Marv Wolfman, Roger McKenzie, Frank Miller, Ann Nocenti
(vol. 2)
Kevin Smith, Brian Michael Bendis, Ed Brubaker
(vol. 1 cont.)
Andy Diggle
(vol. 3)
Mark Waid
Penciller(s) (vol. 1)
Bill Everett, Joe Orlando, Wally Wood, John Romita, Sr., Gene Colan, Bob Brown, Frank Miller, Klaus Janson, David Mazzucchelli, Lee Weeks
(vol. 2)
Joe Quesada, Alex Maleev, Michael Lark
(vol. 1 cont.)
Roberto De la Torre, Marco Checchetto
(vol. 3)
Paolo Rivera
Inker(s) (vol. 1)
Vince Colletta, Syd Shores, Klaus Janson
(vol. 2)
Jimmy Palmiotti, Danny Miki, Stefano Gaudiano
Colorist(s) (vol. 2)
Brian Haberlin, Matt Hollingsworth
(vol. 3)
Javier Rodriguez

Daredevil is a fictional character, a superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist Bill Everett, with an unspecified amount of input from Jack Kirby,[1] and first appeared in Daredevil #1 (April 1964).

Living in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City, Matt Murdock is blinded by a radioactive substance that falls from an oncoming vehicle. While he no longer can see, the radioactive exposure heightens his remaining senses beyond normal human ability. His father, a boxer named Jack Murdock, supports him as he grows up, though Jack is later killed by gangsters after refusing to throw a fight. After donning a yellow and dark red, and later an all dark red costume, Matt seeks out revenge against his father's killers as the superhero Daredevil, fighting against his many enemies including Bullseye and the Kingpin.[2] Daredevil's nickname is "the Man Without Fear".[3]

While Daredevil had been home to the work of comic-book artists such as Everett, Kirby, Wally Wood, John Romita, Sr., and Gene Colan, among others, Frank Miller's influential tenure on the title in the early 1980s cemented the character as a popular and influential part of the Marvel Universe. Daredevil has since appeared in many various forms of media including several animated series, video games and merchandise, and the 2003 feature-length film Daredevil, where he was portrayed by Ben Affleck. Charlie Cox will play Daredevil in Marvel's upcoming Daredevil live-action television series set to premier May 2015.

Publication history[edit]

Further information: List of Daredevil titles

1960s[edit]

The character debuted in Marvel Comics' Daredevil #1 (cover date April 1964),[4] created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist Bill Everett,[5] with character design input from Jack Kirby, who devised Daredevil's billy club.[1] When Everett turned in his first-issue pencils extremely late, Marvel production manager Sol Brodsky and Spider-Man co-creator Steve Ditko inked a large variety of different backgrounds, a "lot of backgrounds and secondary figures on the fly and cobbled the cover and the splash page together from Kirby's original concept drawing".[6]

Writer and comics historian Mark Evanier has concluded (but cannot confirm) that Kirby designed the basic image of Daredevil's costume, though Everett modified it.[1] The character's original costume design was a combination of black, yellow, and red, reminiscent of acrobat tights.[2] Wally Wood, known for his 1950s EC Comics stories, penciled and inked issues #5–10, introducing Daredevil's modern red costume in issue #7.[7][8]

Issue #12 began a brief run by Jack Kirby (layouts) and John Romita, Sr. The issue marked Romita's return to superhero penciling after a decade of working exclusively as a romance-comic artist for DC. Romita had felt he no longer wanted to pencil, in favor of being solely an inker. He recalled in 1999,

I had inked an Avengers job for Stan, and I told him I just wanted to ink. I felt like I was burned out as a penciller after eight years of romance work. I didn't want to pencil any more; in fact, I couldn't work at home any more – I couldn't discipline myself to do it. He said, 'Okay,' but the first chance he had he shows me this Daredevil story somebody had started and he didn't like it, and he wanted somebody else to do it.[9]

Romita later elaborated that,

Stan showed me Dick Ayers' splash page for a Daredevil. He asked me, "What would you do with this page?" I showed him on a tracing paper what I would do, and then he asked me to do a drawing of Daredevil the way I would do it. I did a big drawing of Daredevil ... just a big, tracing-paper drawing of Daredevil swinging. And Stan loved it.[10]

When Romita left to take over The Amazing Spider-Man,[11] Lee gave Daredevil to what would be the character's first signature artist, Gene Colan, who began with issue #20 (Sept. 1966).[4][12] Though #20 identifies Colan as a fill-in penciller, Romita's work load prevented him from returning to the title,[13] and Colan ended up penciling all but three issues through #100 (June 1973), plus the 1967 annual, followed by ten issues sprinkled from 1974–1979. He would return again for an eight-issue run in 1997.[12]

Lee never gave Colan a full script for an issue of Daredevil; instead, he would tell him the plot, and Colan would tape record the conversation to refer to while drawing the issue, leaving Lee to add the script in afterwards.[14] Though Colan is consistently credited as penciler only, Lee would typically give him the freedom to fill in details of the plot as he saw fit. Lee explained "If I would tell Gene who the villain was and what the problem was, how the problem should be resolved and where it would take place, Gene could fill in all the details. Which made it very interesting for me to write because when I got the artwork back and had to put in the copy, I was seeing things that I'd not expected."[15] The 31-issue Lee/Colan run on the series included Daredevil #47, in which Murdock defends a blind Vietnam veteran against a frameup; Lee has cited it as the story he is most proud of out of his entire career.[16] With issue #51, Lee turned the writing chores over to Roy Thomas (who succeeded him on a number of Marvel's titles), but would remain on board as editor for another 40 issues.

The first issue covered both the character's origins and his desire for justice on the man who had killed his father, boxer "Battling Jack" Murdock, who raised young Matthew Murdock in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Jack instills in Matt the importance of education and nonviolence with the aim of seeing his son become a better man than himself. In the course of saving a blind man from the path of an oncoming truck, Matt is blinded by a radioactive substance that falls from the vehicle. The radioactive exposure heightens his remaining senses beyond normal human thresholds, enabling him to detect the shape and location of objects around him. In order to support his son, Jack Murdock returns to boxing under the Fixer, a known gangster, and the only man willing to contract the aging boxer. When he refuses to throw a fight because his son is in the audience, he is killed by one of the Fixer's men. Adorned in a yellow and black costume made from his father's boxing robes and using his superhuman abilities, Matt confronts the killers as the superhero Daredevil, unintentionally causing the Fixer to have a fatal heart attack.[2]

Daredevil would embark on a series of adventures involving such villains as the Owl, Stilt-Man, the Gladiator, and the Enforcers. In issue #16 (May 1966), he meets Spider-Man, a character who would later be one of his greatest hero friends.[17] A letter from Spider-Man unintentionally exposed Daredevil's secret identity, compelling him to adopt a third identity as his twin brother Mike Murdock,[18][19] whose carefree, wisecracking personality much more closely resembled that of the Daredevil guise than the stern, studious, and emotionally withdrawn Matt Murdock did. The "Mike Murdock" scheme was used to highlight the character's quasi-multiple personality disorder (he at one point wonders whether Matt or Mike/Daredevil "is the real me"[20]), but it proved confusing to readers and was dropped in issues #41–42, with Daredevil faking Mike Murdock's death and claiming he had trained a replacement Daredevil. Murdock reveals his secret identity to his girlfriend Karen Page in issue #57,[21] although she leaves the series after the revelation proves too much for her.[22] This was the first of several long-term breakups between Murdock and Page, who would prove the most enduring of his love interests.

1970s[edit]

18-year-old Gerry Conway took over as writer with issue #72, and turned the series in a pulp science fiction direction: a lengthy story arc centered on a robot from thousands of years in the future trying to change his timeline, and even long-standing arch-villain the Owl was outfitted with futuristic weaponry and vehicles. He also moved Daredevil to San Francisco beginning with Daredevil #81, and simultaneously brought on the Black Widow as co-star.[23] Conway explained,

I’d just spent some time in San Francisco a month or two before, and I’d fallen in love with the city as a location. I thought the idea of Daredevil, who spent so much time leaping and diving from rooftop to rooftop, doing this in such a hilly city could make for spectacular visuals. I’ll admit the idea of a blind hero jumping around the rooftops that gave Jimmy Stewart vertigo appealed to me as well. Also, it would allow him to be the costumed hero for an entire city, which would allow him to flourish without having to defer to more superpowered heroes like Spider-Man or the Fantastic Four.[24]

Concerning the Black Widow, he said, "I was a fan of Natasha [Romanoff, the Black Widow], and thought she and Daredevil would have interesting chemistry."[24] She served as Daredevil's co-star and love interest from #81–124 (Nov. 1971–Aug. 1975), of which #93-108 were cover titled Daredevil and the Black Widow. The series had been suffering from slowly declining popularity, and in November 1971 Marvel announced that Daredevil and Iron Man would be combined into a single series, but the addition of the Black Widow revitalized interest in the comic.[24] Due to the Comics Code Authority's restrictions on the depiction of cohabitation, the stories made explicit that though Daredevil and the Black Widow were living in the same apartment, they were sleeping on separate floors, and that Natasha's guardian Ivan Petrovich was always close at hand.[24]

Steve Gerber came on board with issue #97, initially scripting over Conway's plots, but Gene Colan's long stint as Daredevil's penciler had come to an end. Gerber recollected, "Gene and I did a few issues together, but Gene was basically trying to move on at that point. He'd just started the Dracula book, and he'd been doing Daredevil for God knows how many years. I think he wanted to do something else."[25] Jann Wenner, the co-founder and publisher of the Rolling Stone music magazine appeared in Daredevil #100 (June 1973) by Gerber and Colan.[26] After six issues with fill-in pencilers, including several with Don Heck, Bob Brown took over as penciller.

Tony Isabella succeeded Gerber as writer, but editor Len Wein disapproved of his take on the series and sent him off after only five issues, planning to write it himself.[27] Instead, he ended up handing both writing and editing jobs to his friend Marv Wolfman with issue #124, which introduced inker Klaus Janson to the title. It also wrote the Black Widow out of the series and returned Daredevil to Hell's Kitchen; the post-Conway writers had all felt that Daredevil worked better as a solo hero, and had been working to gradually remove the Widow from the series.[24] Wolfman promptly introduced the lively but emotionally fragile Heather Glenn to replace the Black Widow as Daredevil's love interest. Wolfman's 20-issue run included the introduction of one of Daredevil's most popular villains, Bullseye,[28] and a story arc in which the Jester uses computer-generated images to hoodwink the mass media. He was dissatisfied with his work and quit, later explaining, "I felt DD needed something more than I was giving him. I was never very happy with my DD—I never found the thing that made him mine the way Frank Miller did a year or two later. So I was trying to find things to do that interested me and therefore, I hoped, the readers. Ultimately, I couldn't find anything that made DD unique to me and asked off the title."[29] His departure coincided with Brown's death from leukemia.

With issue #144, Jim Shooter became the writer and was joined by a series of short-term pencilers, including Gil Kane, who had been penciling most of Daredevil's covers since #80 but had never before worked on the comic's interior. Shooter and artist Carmine Infantino introduced Paladin in issue #150 (Jan. 1978).[30] The series's once solid sales began dropping during this period, and was downgraded to bi-monthly status with issue #147. Shooter still had difficulty keeping up with the schedule, and the writing chores were shortly turned over to Roger McKenzie.[31]

McKenzie's work on Daredevil reflected his background in horror comics, and the stories and even the character himself took on a much darker tone: Daredevil battled a personification of death,[32] one of his archenemies was bifurcated by a tombstone,[33] and a re-envisioning of Daredevil's origin showed him using stalker tactics to drive the Fixer to his fatal heart attack.[34] McKenzie created chain-smoking Daily Bugle reporter Ben Urich, who deduces Daredevil's secret identity over the course of issues #153–163,[35] and had Daredevil using the criminal underworld of Hell's Kitchen as an information network, adding several small-time crooks to the supporting cast.

Halfway through his run, McKenzie was joined by penciler Frank Miller, who had previously drawn Daredevil in The Spectacular Spider-Man #27 (Feb. 1979),[36] with issue #158 (May 1979).[37]

In a story arc overlapping Wolfman, Shooter, and McKenzie's runs on the series, Daredevil reveals his identity to Glenn and becomes partially responsible for the suicide of her father; their relationship would persist, but would prove increasingly harmful to both of them. Though the Black Widow returned for a dozen issues (#155–166) and attempted to rekindle her romance with Daredevil, he ultimately rejects her in favor of Glenn.

1980s[edit]

Sales had been declining since the end of the Wolfman/Brown run, and by the time Miller became Daredevil's penciler, the series was in danger of cancellation. Moreover, Miller disliked Roger McKenzie's scripts, and Jim Shooter (who had since become Marvel's editor-in-chief) had to talk him out of quitting.[31] Seeking to appease Miller,[31] and impressed by a short backup feature he had written, new editor Denny O'Neil fired McKenzie so that Miller could write the series.[38] The decision was made so abruptly that the last issue of McKenzie's run plugs a two-part story which never appeared, though part one eventually saw print in Daredevil #183.

Frank Miller's antihero depiction of Daredevil proved to be the most popular take on the character. Cover of Daredevil #184 (July 1982). Art by Frank Miller and Klaus Janson.

Miller continued the title in a similar vein to McKenzie. Resuming the drastic metamorphosis the previous writer had begun, Miller took the step of essentially ignoring all of Daredevil's continuity prior to his run on the series; on the occasions where older villains and supporting cast were used, their characterizations and history with Daredevil were reworked or overwritten. Most prominently, dedicated and loving father Jack Murdock was reimagined as a drunkard who physically abused his son Matt, entirely revising Daredevil's reasons for becoming a lawyer.[39] Spider-Man villain Kingpin was introduced as Daredevil's new nemesis, displacing most of his large rogues gallery. Daredevil himself was gradually developed into an antihero. In issue #181 (April 1982), he attempts to murder one of his arch-enemies by throwing him off a tall building; when the villain survives as a quadriplegic, he breaks into his hospital room and tries to scare him to death by playing a two-man variation on Russian roulette with a secretly unloaded gun.[39] Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Almost immediately, [Miller] began to attract attention with his terse tales of urban crime."[40] Miller's revamping of the title was controversial among fans, but it clicked with new readers, and sales began soaring,[31] the comic returning to monthly status just three issues after Miller came on as writer.

Miller introduced ninjas into the Daredevil canon, bringing a martial arts aspect to Daredevil's fighting skills, and introducing previously unseen characters who had played a major part in his youth: Stick, leader of the ninja clan the Chaste, who had been Murdock's sensei after he was blinded;[41] a rival clan called the Hand;[42] and Elektra, an ex-girlfriend turned lethal ninja assassin.[43] This was a drastic change for a character once called "the sightless swashbuckler". Elektra was killed fighting Bullseye in issue #181 (April 1982), an issue which saw brisk sales.[44]

With #185, inker Janson began doing the pencils over Miller's layouts, and after #191 Miller left the series entirely. O'Neil switched from editor to writer. O'Neil was not enthusiastic about the switch, later saying "I took the gig mostly because there didn't seem to be (m)any other viable candidates for it."[38] He continued McKenzie and Miller's noir take on the series, but backed away from the antihero depiction of the character by having him not only spare Bullseye's life, but express guilt over his two previous attempts to kill him. Janson left shortly after Miller, replaced initially by penciler William Johnson and inker Danny Bulanadi, who were both supplanted by David Mazzucchelli. Miller returned as the title's regular writer, co-writing #226 with O'Neil. Miller and Mazzucchelli crafted the acclaimed "Daredevil: Born Again" storyline in #227–233.[45] In the story Karen Page, who had not been seen since Marv Wolfman's run a decade before, returns as a heroin-addicted porn star, and sells Daredevil's secret identity for drug money. The Kingpin acquires the information and in an act of revenge, orchestrates a frameup which costs Murdock his attorney's license. Miller ended the arc on a positive note, with Murdock reuniting with both Karen Page and Maggie, the mother he thought dead, now a nun. Miller intended to produce an additional two-part story with artist Walt Simonson but the story was never completed and remains unpublished.[46]

Three fill-in issues followed before Steve Englehart (under the pseudonym "John Harkness")[47][48] took the post of writer, only to lose it after one issue due to a plot conflict with one of the fill-ins. Ann Nocenti was brought on as a fill-in writer but became the series's longest-running regular writer, with a four-and-a-quarter-year run from #238–291 (Jan. 1987 – April 1991). The shuffle of short-term artists continued for her first year, until John Romita, Jr. joined as penciller from #250–282 (Jan. 1988 – Jul. 1990) alongside inker Al Williamson, who stayed on through #300.

The team returned Murdock to law by co-founding with Page a nonprofit drug and legal clinic, while Nocenti crafted stories confronting feminism, drug abuse, nuclear proliferation, and animal rights-inspired terrorism. She introduced the antagonist Typhoid Mary,[49] and in issues #262–265 used the Inferno event as a backdrop for the collapse of Daredevil's life: the clinic is destroyed, Page goes missing after learning of his affair with Mary Walker, and Walker reveals herself as the alter ego of Typhoid Mary. Murdock subsequently becomes a drifter in upstate New York, an especially controversial move in Nocenti's run, as it marked the first time the character had been taken outside of an urban environment. She ended her run with a positive turn in Murdock's fortunes: he returns to Hell's Kitchen, regains his sense of self, reconciles with Foggy Nelson, and resolves to seek out Karen Page.

1990s[edit]

New writer D. G. Chichester and penciler Lee Weeks continued from where Nocenti left off, with Murdock resuming his friendship with Foggy Nelson, struggling to re-win the heart of Karen Page, appealing the revocation of his attorney's license, and bonding more deeply than ever with Hell's Kitchen. Chichester's focus on Daredevil's relationship with New York City went so far as to have two issues devoted entirely to Daredevil defending New Yorkers from ordinary criminals and even simple accidents. The critically acclaimed "Last Rites" arc from #297–300 saw Daredevil regaining his attorney's license and finally bringing the Kingpin to justice.[50]

Frank Miller returned to the character and his origins with the 1993 five-issue Daredevil: The Man Without Fear miniseries.[51] With artist John Romita, Jr., Miller expanded his retcon of the life and death of Murdock's father, "Battling Jack" Murdock, and Murdock's first encounters with the Kingpin and Foggy Nelson.[52] The role of Stick in the genesis of Daredevil was expanded, as was Murdock's doomed love affair with Elektra.

The creative team of Chichester and penciler Scott McDaniel changed the status quo with their "Fall From Grace" storyline in issues #319–325 (Aug. 1993 – Feb. 1994).[53] Elektra, who was resurrected in #190 but had not been seen since, finally returned. An injured Daredevil creates a more protective costume from biomimetic materials: red and gray with white armor on the shoulders and knee pads. Revamped billy clubs could attach to form nunchucks or a bo staff. His secret identity becomes public knowledge, leading to him faking his own death and assuming the new identity of "Jack Batlin". This new identity and costume lasts for several story arcs, while Murdock finds a way to convince the world that he is not, in fact, secretly Daredevil (courtesy of a double). A short stint by J. M. DeMatteis returned Daredevil to his traditional red costume and Matt Murdock identity.

Under writers Karl Kesel and later Joe Kelly, the title gained a lighter tone, with Daredevil returning to the lighthearted, wisecracking hero depicted by earlier writers. Matt and Foggy (who now knows of Matt's dual identities) join a law firm run by Foggy's mother, Rosalind Sharpe. Gene Colan returned to the series during this time, but though initially enthusiastic about drawing Daredevil again, he quit after seven issues, complaining that Kesel and Kelly's scripts were too "retro".[54]

In 1998, Daredevil's numbering was rebooted, with the title "canceled" with issue #380 and revived a month later as part of the Marvel Knights imprint.[55] Joe Quesada drew the new series, written by filmmaker Kevin Smith.[56] Its first story arc, "Guardian Devil", depicts Daredevil struggling to protect a child whom he is told could either be the Messiah or the Anti-Christ. Murdock experiences a crisis of faith exacerbated by the discovery that Karen Page has AIDS (later revealed to be a hoax) and her subsequent death at Bullseye's hands.[57]

Smith was succeeded by writer-artist David Mack, who contributed the seven-issue "Parts of a Hole" (vol. 2, #9–15). The arc introduced Maya Lopez, also known as Echo, a deaf martial artist.

2000s[edit]

David Mack brought independent-comics colleague Brian Michael Bendis to Marvel to co-write the following arc, "Wake Up" in vol. 2 #16–19 (May 2001 – August 2001),[58] which follows reporter Ben Urich as he investigates the aftereffects of a fight between Daredevil and the new Leap-Frog. Following Mack and Bendis were Back to the Future screenwriter Bob Gale and artists Phil Winslade and David Ross for the story "Playing to the Camera". Mack continued to contribute covers.

The 2001 Daredevil: Yellow miniseries presented another take on Daredevil's origins using letters written to Karen Page after her death. The series depicts the early rivalry between Matt Murdock and Foggy Nelson for Karen Page's affection, and incorporates many events depicted in the earliest issues of "Daredevil" Vol. 1. The supervillains the Owl and the Purple Man appear as antagonists. In this story, Daredevil credits Page with coining the phrase "The Man without Fear", and she suggests to Daredevil he wear all maroon instead of dark red and yellow.

Issue #26 (Dec. 2001) brought back Brian Michael Bendis, working this time with artist Alex Maleev. IGN called Bendis's four-year-run "one of the greatest creative tenures in Marvel history" and commented that it rivaled Frank Miller's work.[59] Developments in this run included the introduction of romantic interest and future wife Milla Donovan, the outing once again of Murdock's secret identity, the reemergence of the Kingpin, and Daredevil's surrender to the FBI.

The impact of his exposure as Daredevil continued to be used as a plot point by both Bendis and writer Ed Brubaker and artist Michael Lark, who became the new creative team with Daredevil vol. 2, #82 (Feb. 2006),[60] no longer under the Marvel Knights imprint.

Danny Rand as Daredevil. Art by Michael Lark.

Brubaker's first story arc had a new character masquerading as Daredevil in Hell's Kitchen.[61] Murdock later discovered the ersatz Daredevil is his friend Danny Rand, the superhero Iron Fist.[62]

The series returned to its original numbering with issue #500 (Oct. 2009),[63] which followed vol. 2, #119 (Aug. 2009). New writer Andy Diggle revised the status quo,[64][65] with Daredevil assuming leadership of the ninja army the Hand. Daredevil later appeared in the one-shot Dark Reign: The List – Daredevil.[66]

2010s[edit]

Following this came the crossover story arc "Shadowland",[67] in which Daredevil is possessed by a demon. Murdock then leaves New York, leaving his territory in the hands of the Black Panther in the briefly retitled series' Black Panther: Man Without Fear #513. Murdock finds himself renewed in the miniseries Daredevil: Reborn #1–4 (March–July 2011).

In July 2011, Daredevil relaunched with vol. 3 #1 (Sept. 2011),[68] with the creative team of writer Mark Waid and penciler Paolo Rivera. Waid said he was interested in "tweaking the adventure-to-depression ratio a bit and letting Matt win again,"[69] as well as emphasizing the character's powers and perception of the physical world.[70] In the premiere issue, Murdock finds he can no longer serve as a trial lawyer due to past allegations of his being Daredevil causing a case he represents in court to turn into a media circus. Two issues later, Nelson and Murdock have developed a new business strategy of serving as consulting counselors, by teaching clients how to represent themselves in court. Daredevil joins the New Avengers in a story written by former Daredevil series writer Brian Michael Bendis.[71][72] Daredevil appeared as a regular character in the 2010–2013 New Avengers series, from issue #16 (November 2011) through its final issue #34 (January 2013). At one point, Foggy begins to question Matt's sanity, ultimately leading to a fallout between the two.[73] They reconcile once the truth is discovered.[74][75] The series officially ended at issue #36 in February 2014,[76] in which Matt is forced to reveal the truth of his identity as Daredevil to avoid being blackmailed by a member of the Sons of Serpent, resulting in his being disbarred by the New York Supreme Court. Since he cannot be admitted into a new State Bar except for one he served in before, Matt is forced to once again re-locate to San Francisco.[77]

Waid and Chris Samnee followed this up with the Daredevil: Road Warrior limited-run weekly digital mini-series from Infinite Comics over the next month[78] that focused on an adventure during Matt's trip to San Francisco which was later reprinted as issue 0.1 in the Vol. 4 series.[79] This series ended on the same week as the relaunching of the main title with vol. 4 #1 (also by Waid and Samnee) in March 2014 as part of the All-New Marvel NOW! event which focuses on Matt's new life in San Francisco.[78][80]

During the AXIS storyline, Matt Murdock is at Giants Stadium where Iron Man presents his new digital version of the Extremis free for every citizen of San Francisco to achieve perfection.[81] When Daredevil attempts to confront Tony Stark about his actions, Stark "infects" Murdock with a version of Extremis that restores Daredevil's vision.[82] Daredevil confronts Tony Stark about having unleashed Extremis and the problems it caused to society. Tony surprises Matt with increased agility and strength and beat him up before throwing him from his headquarters.[83]

Powers and abilities[edit]

Although the character is blind, his remaining four senses function with high levels of superhuman accuracy and sensitivity, giving him abilities far beyond the limits of a sighted person; few know that the hero cannot see. Daredevil developed a radar sense,[84] which is similar to echolocation.

When Frank Miller expanded most of Daredevil's abilities, he attempted to make them "extraordinary enough to be exciting, but not on par with Superman", noting Superman's distinctly unbelievable powers.[84] When Miller joined the title in 1979, the first thing he did to the character was "revamp" his radar sense and made it less distinct and more believable; he wanted Daredevil to have the "proximity" sense that most martial artists claim to have.[84] Because of this, he created an ability for Daredevil to hear the Hulk's heartbeat four blocks away. Due to the character's sensitive sense of touch, Daredevil can read by passing his fingers over the letters on a page[84] though laminated pages prevent him from reading the ink.[85] Daredevil has commonly used his superhuman hearing to serve as a lie detector for interrogation by listening for changes in a person's heartbeat. This ability can be fooled if the other person's heart is not beating at a natural rate, such as if they have a pacemaker.[86][87]

Just as Daredevil's other senses are stronger, they are also sensitive; his main weakness is his vulnerability to powerful sounds or odors that can be used to temporarily weaken his radar sense.[88] This weakness is often used to immobilize Daredevil if he is bombarded by too much sound, which will cause him great pain and disorient him.[89] Since Daredevil's means of sight is based on what his radar sense and enhanced senses are able to detect, if anybody or anything around him does not exhibit any of these factors, then Daredevil would be unable to sense it. In one instance the hallucinogenic drug that Mysterio created was designed with no taste or smell so Daredevil could not tell he was drugged until he consulted Doctor Strange who was able to discover it from the small cross that Mysterio gave to Daredevil in disguise which contained the drug and Strange magically cured him.[90]

His senses are highly acute; he has even been shown to be capable of sensing the minor atmospheric disturbance created when Nightcrawler is about to appear moments before the mutant in question actually arrives at his destination.[91] When Daredevil fought Psylocke during the war between the Avengers and the X-Men, he briefly gained an advantage when she tried to read his mind and found herself overwhelmed by the sensory input she received from his enhanced senses, reflecting the scale of psychological training required for Daredevil to operate as he does.[92]

While his radar sense mostly compensates for his blindness, it has certain limitations (explored most strongly during Mark Waid's run on the title).[volume & issue needed] He can't perceive color without touch, and he can only read printed matter if the ink is raised enough for his sense of touch.[volume & issue needed] Most photographs, televisions, and computer screens are blank to him.[volume & issue needed] He has also been shown to have difficulty perceiving a person's race (without cues other than skin color).[volume & issue needed]

Though he has no superhuman physical attributes beyond an enhanced sense of balance, Daredevil is a master of martial arts.[93] Having been trained by Stick, Daredevil is a master hand-to-hand combatant. His typical moves are unique blends of the martial arts of ninjutsu, aiki jujutsu, jujitsu, kung fu, capoeira, judo, aikido, wrestling, and stick fighting combined with American-style boxing while making full use of his gymnastics capabilities.[94]

Daredevil's signature weapon is his specially-designed billy club, which he created.[88] Disguised as a blind man's cane in civilian garb, it is a multi-purpose weapon and tool that contains thirty feet of aircraft control cable connected to a case-hardened steel grapnel. Internal mechanisms allow the cable to be neatly wound and unwound, while a powerful spring launches the grapnel. The handle can be straightened for use when throwing. The club can be split into two parts, one of which is a fighting baton, the other of which ends in a curved hook.[1][88]

In his civilian identity, Murdock is a skilled and respected attorney with an encyclopedic knowledge of law,[citation needed] especially New York statutes. He is a skilled detective, tracker, and interrogation expert, as well as being an expert marksman.[citation needed]

Other versions[edit]

In addition to his mainstream incarnation, Daredevil has had been depicted in other fictional universes, including Marvel 2099, Marvel Noir and the Ultimate Marvel Universe.

Reception[edit]

Daredevil was named Empire's 37th Greatest Comic Book Character, citing him as "a compelling, layered and visually striking character".[95] Empire praised Frank Miller's era, and referenced Brian Michael Bendis, Jeph Loeb, and Kevin Smith's tenures on the series.[95] Wizard magazine ranked Daredevil 21st among their list of the 200 Greatest Comic Characters of All Time,[96] and comic book readers polled through the website Comic Book Resources voted the character the third best of the Marvel Comics stable.[97] IGN ranked Daredevil as the third best series from Marvel Comics in 2006[98] and in 2011 ranked Daredevil as #10 on their list of "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes".[99]

The series has won the following awards as well:

  • Daredevil #227: "Apocalypse", Best Single Issue – 1986 Kirby Awards
  • Daredevil: Born Again, Best Writer/Artist (single or team), Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli – 1987 Kirby Awards
  • Daredevil: The Man Without Fear, Favorite Limited Comic-Book Series – 1993 Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award[100]
  • Daredevil by writer Brian Michael Bendis and artist Alex Maleev, 2003 Eisner Awards (for works published in 2002)[101]
  • Daredevil, Best Writer, Ed Brubaker – 2007 Harvey Award
  • Daredevil #7, Best Single Issue (or One-Shot) – 2012 Eisner Awards (for works published in 2011)[102]
  • Daredevil by Mark Waid, Marcos Martín, Paolo Rivera, and Joe Rivera, Best Continuing Series – 2012 Eisner Awards
  • David Mazzucchelli's Daredevil Born Again: Artist’s Edition, edited by Scott Dunbier (IDW),Best Archival Collection – 2013 Eisner Awards
  • Chris Samnee, Daredevil v3, Best Penciller/Inker – 2013 Eisner Awards

Supporting characters[edit]

Throughout the core Daredevil series, many characters have had an influence in Matt Murdock's life. His father, "Battlin' Jack" Murdock instills in Matt the importance of education and nonviolence with the aim of seeing his son become a better man than himself.[2] He always encouraged Matt to study, rather than fight like him. Jack forbade his son from undertaking any kind of physical training.[103] It is his father's murder that prompts the super-powered character to become a superhero, fighting gangsters.[103] He was trained by an old blind ninja master named Stick following his childhood accident.[104]

Matt Murdock's closest friend is Franklin "Foggy" Nelson, his college roommate, sidekick, and law partner.[2] Their relationship in the early years of the series was fraught with tension due to Nelson's sense of inferiority to Murdock as a lawyer and as a target for the affections of their secretary, Karen Page. They frequently argued over Murdock's preference for defending supervillains, as Nelson's enthusiasm is for corporate law. The pudgy and fallible Nelson has often been used by writers for lightheartedness and even comic relief. As a superhero, one of Daredevil's best friends is the hero Spider-Man; with his enhanced senses, Murdock was able to physically identify Spider-Man on their first meeting,[105] and Spider-Man in turn learned his secret identity some time after.[106] Due to the events of the "One More Day" storyline, Murdock no longer knows Spider-Man's secret identity, and since then refused to relearn it due to the potential danger involved.[107] Iron Fist would later become one of his greatest friends, and at one point took on the role of Daredevil himself.[62] Jessica Jones, a former superhero turned private investigator acts as a bodyguard for Matt Murdock in his civilian life. Her husband, Luke Cage, is a friend of Daredevil as well.[108] Maya Lopez, a deaf woman and skilled martial artist, is a friend of Daredevil after he fought her and convinced her that he did not murder her father, because she was being manipulated by the Kingpin, who was responsible. Ben Urich, a reporter for the Daily Bugle discovered Daredevil's identity and eventually becomes his friend as well,[109] though during his identity dispute Daredevil decided to end his "secret professional relationship" with Urich to avoid getting Urich mixed up in his problems and being used against him.[110]

Daredevil has a convoluted and often tortured love life. One of Daredevil's more notable love interests is Elektra, an assassin who would later be killed.[111] In the 2000s, Murdock marries a woman named Milla Donovan, although one of Daredevil's enemies drives her to insanity.[112][113]

Daredevil enemies[edit]

In his early years, Daredevil fought a number of costumed supervillains, the first of these being Electro, a prominent Spider-Man foe, in Daredevil #2. A number of recurring villains would be introduced over the years, such as the Owl,[114] the Purple Man,[115] Mister Fear,[116] Stilt-Man,[117] Gladiator,[118] the Jester,[119] the Man-Bull,[120] and Death-Stalker.[121] The supervillain duo of the Cobra and Mr. Hyde have frequently clashed with Daredevil, and Hyde has fought Daredevil alone on several occasions. The psychotic assassin Bullseye was introduced by Marv Wolfman in issue #131,[122] and was a frequent antagonist over the next six years of the series.

Beginning with Frank Miller's run on Daredevil, his traditional rogues gallery was used less often, and The Kingpin became Daredevil's arch-enemy. Like the Purple Man, Death-Stalker, Assassin, and several others, the Kingpin has long known Daredevil's secret identity. His run as the series's central villain ended with issue #300, but he continues to menace Daredevil on occasion. Elektra made her debut as a bounty hunter, and though her time as part of Daredevil's rogues gallery was brief (spanning barely a year of the series), her romantic past with him is an important part of the mythos. In Daredevil #254, Ann Nocenti introduced Typhoid Mary, an assassin for the Kingpin with an identity disorder became a prominent Daredevil foe. The Punisher, vigilante Frank Castle, is one of Daredevil's most prolific antagonists and at times a reluctant ally.

In other media[edit]

Daredevil in the Spider-Man episode "The Man Without Fear".
Theatrical poster for the live-action movie Daredevil starring Ben Affleck.

Television[edit]

  • In 1975, Angela Bowie secured the TV rights to Daredevil and the Black Widow for a duration of one year and planned a TV series based on the two characters. Bowie had photographer Terry O'Neill take a series of pictures of herself as Black Widow and actor Ben Carruthers as Daredevil (with wardrobe by Natasha Kornilkoff) to shop the project around to producers, but the project never came to fruition.[123]
  • Daredevil made his first animated television appearance in his true identity Matt Murdock and only appears in his Daredevil costume in a flashback, in the Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends episode "Attack of the Arachnoid" voiced by Frank Welker.[124]
  • In the 1980s, ABC had planned a Daredevil animated television series that would have featured a guide dog named "Lightning the Super-Dog".[125][126] Television writer Mark Evanier said in 2008 that he was the last in a line of writers to have written a pilot and series bible, with his including Lightning as a guide dog without superpowers.[125]
  • In 1983, ABC planned a live-action Daredevil pilot. Academy Award-winning writer Stirling Silliphant completed the draft of the program, but it was not aired.[127]
  • Daredevil, portrayed by Rex Smith, appears in NBC's 1989 live action television film The Trial of the Incredible Hulk. When David Banner (Bill Bixby) gets arrested, Matt Murdock helps to prove Banner's innocence. Daredevil tells his origins to Banner, which in this version involves Murdock being inspired by a police officer to become a hero. Later, with the help of Hulk, he battles the Kingpin (John Rhys-Davies), called only Wilson Fisk here.[128] While remaining fairly true to the source material of the Daredevil comic books, the largest change was that Daredevil's traditional costume, including his horns, was replaced with a black ninja-like outfit. Daredevil would later wear a similar black outfit in Frank Miller and John Romita Jr’s 1993′s "Daredevil: The Man Without Fear" miniseries.
  • Daredevil appears in the 1990s Fantastic Four episode "And a Blind Man Shall Lead Them", voiced by Bill Smitrovich.[129] He helps the powerless Fantastic Four get into the Baxter Building when Doctor Doom takes it over.
  • Daredevil appears in the 1990s Spider-Man: The Animated Series episodes "Framed" and "The Man Without Fear", voiced by Edward Albert.[124] J. Jonah Jameson hires Matt Murdock to defend Peter Parker when he is framed for industrial espionage by Richard Fisk. These episodes were later incorporated into the direct-to-DVD animated film Daredevil vs Spider-Man.

Marvel Studios[edit]

Main article: Daredevil (TV series)

Film[edit]

Video games[edit]

Daredevil as he appears in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance.

Toys[edit]

  • Daredevil is featured in the Marvel Legends (third series) toy line. The action figure was based on the film version Ben Affleck starred in.[144] The Marvel Legends Showdown 1/18th scale line featured Daredevil figures in both his red uniform and a chase version in his yellow-and-black uniform.[145]
  • The "Spider-Man Classics" toy line, which was a precursor to Marvel Legends, included a Daredevil figure, clad in his traditional red costume.[146] The action figure resembles Marvel Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada's representation of Daredevil; it is derived from Quesada's stint as an artist on Daredevil.[146] Accessories to the figure include the two billy clubs that the character uses. Unlike the mainstream comics, the clubs are white (rather than red). An expensive variant of the character included him in his original yellow and black garb, released in the same series.[146]
  • Daredevil is the 13th figurine in the Classic Marvel Figurine Collection.[147]
  • Daredevil was featured in wave one of the first series in the 3 3/4" Marvel Universe line.[145]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Evanier, Mark (n.d.). "The Jack F.A.Q. – Page 4". PovOnline. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Lee, Stan (w), Everett, Bill (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Origin of Daredevil" Daredevil 1 (April 1964), Marvel Comics
  3. ^ Rezvan-Mojarrad, Sohrab (2002). "Daredevil". The Superhero Dictionary. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Daredevil (Marvel, 1964 series) at the Grand Comics Database
  5. ^ DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 100. ISBN 978-0756641238. Stan Lee chose the name Daredevil because it evoked swashbucklers and circus daredevils, and he assigned Bill Everett, the creator of the Sub-Mariner to design and draw Daredevil #1. 
  6. ^ Quesada, Joe (n.d., circa May 2005). "Joe Fridays 4 (column)". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. 
  7. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (1996–2013). "Daredevil: The Man Without Fear – Writers". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2009. 
  8. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 107
  9. ^ Interview: "John Romita Sr.: Spidey's Man". Comic Book Artist (TwoMorrows Publishing) (6). Fall 1999. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. 
  10. ^ John Romita, Sr., interviewed by former Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas: "Fifty Years on the 'A' List". Alter Ego 3 (9). July 2001. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2009. 
  11. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 35. ISBN 978-0756692360. Artist John Romita, the penciler that would define the looks of Spider-Man and Peter Parker for an entire generation, had his first crack at drawing the web-slinger in a two-part story of the Stan Lee penned series Daredevil. 
  12. ^ a b Wolk, Douglas (July 2, 2007). Reading Comics: How Graphic Novels Work, and What They Mean. Da Capo Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-306-81509-6. 
  13. ^ Field, Tom (2005). Secrets in the Shadows: The Art & Life of Gene Colan. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1893905450. 
  14. ^ Field, p. 58
  15. ^ Field, p. 61
  16. ^ McLaughlin, Jeff (2007). Stan Lee: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi. p. 185. ISBN 978-1578069859. There was a Daredevil story about a blind guy that I loved [issue #47]. 
  17. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John, Sr. (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "Enter... Spider-Man!" Daredevil 16 (May 1966), Marvel Comics
  18. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "Enter: the Leap-Frog!" Daredevil 25 (January 1967), Marvel Comics
  19. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 120: "Matt Murdock decided to introduce his legal partner and his secretary to his identical twin brother when they began to suspect he was Daredevil. Unfortunately, he didn't have one. So, Matt pretended to be his own twin, who was a glibber and more enthusiastic party boy.
  20. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Tartaglione, John (i). "Unmasked!" Daredevil 29 (June 1967), Marvel Comics
  21. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 138
  22. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Shores, Syd (i). "In the Midst of Life...!" Daredevil 57 (October 1969), Marvel Comics
  23. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 155: In May [1972], writer Gerry Conway transported Daredevil and his crime-fighting partner, the Black Widow, into a mansion in San Francisco.
  24. ^ a b c d e Carson, Lex (December 2010). "Daredevil and the Black Widow: A Swinging Couple of Crimefighters". Back Issue! (TwoMorrows Publishing) (45): 31–38. 
  25. ^ Field, p. 115
  26. ^ Boyd, Jerry (December 2013). "The House of Ideas' Herculean 100th Issues!! Mighty Marvel Celebrates in Style". Back Issue! (TwoMorrows Publishing) (69): 11–12. 
  27. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (May 1997). "Interview With Tony Isabella". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  28. ^ Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 175: In March [1976], writer Marv Wolfman and artist Bob Brown co-created one of the Man Without Fear's greatest nemeses, Bullseye.
  29. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (November 1997). "Interview With Marv Wolfman". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  30. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 184
  31. ^ a b c d Mithra, Kuljit (July 1998). "Interview With Jim Shooter". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  32. ^ McKenzie, Roger (w), Colan, Gene (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Ring of Death!" Daredevil 156 (January 1979), Marvel Comics
  33. ^ McKenzie, Roger (w), Miller, Frank (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "A Grave Mistake!" Daredevil 158 (May 1979), Marvel Comics
  34. ^ McKenzie, Roger (w), Miller, Frank (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Exposé" Daredevil 164 (May 1980), Marvel Comics
  35. ^ Manning "1970s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 102: "The Daily Bugle gained one of its finest writers when Ben Urich was introduced, thanks to writer Roger McKenzie and penciler Gene Colan."
  36. ^ Saffel, Steve (2007). "Weaving a Broader Web". Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon. Titan Books. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4. Frank Miller was the guest penciler for The Spectacular Spider-Man #27, February 1979, written by Bill Mantlo. [The issue's] splash page was the first time Miller's [rendition of] Daredevil appeared in a Marvel story. 
  37. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 189: In this issue the great longtime Daredevil artist Gene Colan was succeeded by a new penciller who would become a star himself: Frank Miller.
  38. ^ a b Mithra, Kuljit (February 1998). "Interview With Dennis O'Neil". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  39. ^ a b Miller, Frank (w), Miller, Frank (p), Austin, Terry (i). "Roulette" Daredevil 191 (May 1980), Marvel Comics
  40. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 188. ISBN 9780810938212. 
  41. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: "Possibly modeled after Nantembo, a Zen master who reputedly disciplined his students by striking them with his nantin staff, Stick first appeared in this issue [#176] by Frank Miller."
  42. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: The Hand was a league of ninja assassins who employed dark magic...Introduced in Daredevil #174 by writer/artist Frank Miller, this group of deadly warriors had been hired by the Kingpin of Crime to exterminate Matt Murdock."
  43. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 201: "Matt Murdock's college sweetheart first appeared in this issue [#168] by writer/artist Frank Miller."
  44. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 207: "Frank Miller did the unthinkable when he killed off the popular Elektra in Daredevil #181...[This issue] immediately sold out in comic book stores and sent fans and retailers to raid mass market newsstands for all the remaining copies."
  45. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 226: "'Born Again' was a seven-issue story arc that appeared in Daredevil from issue #227 to #233 (Feb. – Aug. 1986) by writer Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli."
  46. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (August 1997). "Interview With Walt Simonson". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013. The gist of it is that by the time Marvel was interested in having us work on the story, Frank was off doing Dark Knight and I was off doing X-Factor. So it never happened. Too bad—it was a cool story too. 
  47. ^ Englehart, Steve (n.d.). "Daredevil". SteveEnglehart.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013. [S]ince all the plotlines I set up went to waste I put my "John Harkness" pseudonym on it. 
  48. ^ Mithra, Kuljit S. (June 1997). "Interview With Steve Englehart". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on December 11, 2011. 
  49. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 237: "Mary was first introduced in Daredevil #254 by [writer] Ann Nocenti and artist John Romita, Jr."
  50. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 258: "Culminating in the anniversary 300th issue, Daredevil would finally gain the upper hand against longtime foe Wilson Fisk (the Kingpin) in this moody tale by writer D. G. Chichester and penciller Lee Weeks."
  51. ^ Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 264: "Comic legends Frank Miller and John Romita, Jr. united to tell a new version of Daredevil's origin in this carefully crafted five-issue miniseries."
  52. ^ Miller, Frank; Romita, Jr., John (1994). Daredevil: The Man Without Fear. Marvel Comics. p. 160. ISBN 978-0752208978. 
  53. ^ Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 263
  54. ^ Field, p. 149
  55. ^ Daredevil vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  56. ^ Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 290: "It was a dream come true for many comic fans. Kevin Smith, the writer/director of such cult films as Clerks, Mallrats, and Chasing Amy...had been hired by Marvel to write Daredevil, a character whose title many thought could use a major facelift."
  57. ^ Smith, Kevin (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Palmiotti, Jimmy (i). "Guardian Devil Part 8: The Devil's Deliverance" Daredevil v2, 8 (June 1999)
  58. ^ Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 305: "Writer Brian Michael Bendis began his impressive run on the Daredevil title with a small character-driven four-part story, teaming with his old friend David Mack."
  59. ^ George, Rich (September 16, 2005). "Daredevil: The Bendis Trades – Frank Miller has met his equal". IGN. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  60. ^ Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 331: "Writer Ed Brubaker and artist Michael Lark had quite a challenge ahead of them when they took over the reins of Daredevil from the popular team of writer Brian Michael Bendis nand artist Alex Maleev."
  61. ^ Brubaker, Ed (w), Lark, Michael (p), Gaudiano, Stefano (i). "The Devil in Cell Block D" Daredevil v2, 87 (September 2006)
  62. ^ a b Brady, Matt (July 27, 2006). "Spoiler Sport: Who Was That Daredevil-Masked Man?". Newsarama. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2009. 
  63. ^ Daredevil (continuation of vol. 1) at the Grand Comics Database
  64. ^ Phegley, Kiel (March 26, 2009). "Diggle on Daredevil". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2009. 
  65. ^ Brady, Matt (March 24, 2009). "Moving into Hell's Kitchen: Andy Diggle Talks Daredevil". Newsarama. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2009. 
  66. ^ Mahadeo, Kevin (June 30, 2009). "Making the List: Andy Diggle". Marvel. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 
  67. ^ Richards, Dave (April 17, 2010). "C2E2: Diggle Leads Daredevil into Shadowland". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 
  68. ^ Daredevil vol. 3 at the Grand Comics Database
  69. ^ Ash, Roger (April 27, 2011). "Interview: Mark Waid on Marvel’s Daredevil". Westfield Comics Blog. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  70. ^ Richards, Dave (May 16, 2011). "Waid, Rivera & Martin Give the 'Daredevil' His Due". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  71. ^ Morse, Ben (June 9, 2011). "New Avengers: Devils You Know". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  72. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Deodato, Mike (p), Deodato, Mike (i). "I Go Online" The New Avengers v2, 16 (November 2011)
  73. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Samnee, Chris (p), Samnee, Chris (i). "A sudden floodtide of bitter memories" Daredevil v3, 16 (October 2012)
  74. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Samnee, Chris (p), Samnee, Chris (i). "In my time, I've thought off Kingpin, Bullseye and the Hulk" Daredevil v3, 21 (February 2013)
  75. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Samnee, Chris (p), Samnee, Chris (i). Daredevil v3, 22 (March 2013)
  76. ^ Sunu, Steve (October 23, 2013). "Daredevil To Conclude With Issue #36". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. 
  77. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Samnee, Chris (p), Samnee, Chris (i). "Wow. Matt that's--" Daredevil v3, 36 (April 2014)
  78. ^ a b Schedeen, Jesse (November 25, 2013). "Mark Waid Returns to Daredevil in March 2014". IGN. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Marvel announced that Waid and artist Chris Samnee will be returning to helm the fourth volume of Daredevil. 
  79. ^ "Daredevil (2014) #0.1". Marvel Comics. July 2, 2014. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. 
  80. ^ Casey, Dan (November 25, 2013). "Exclusive: Mark Waid and Chris Samnee Talk Daredevil #1 for All-New Marvel NOW!". Nerdist.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2014. 
  81. ^ Remender, Rick (w), Yu, Leinil Francis (p), Yu, Leinil Francis (i). AXIS (comics) 4 (January 2015)
  82. ^ Superior Iron Man #2
  83. ^ Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #6
  84. ^ a b c d "A History of the Radar Sense #4 – Frank Miller, Part 1". The Other Murdock Papers. March 21, 2009. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009. 
  85. ^ Diggle, Andy (w), Gianfelice, Davide (p), Gianfelice, Davide (i). "Reborn Chapter One" Daredevil Reborn 1 (March 2011)
  86. ^ Furious, Nick (January 25, 2011). "The Top 5 Enemies of Daredevil". ComicBooked.com. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  87. ^ Miller, Frank (w), Miller, Frank (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Good Guys Wear Red" Daredevil 184 (July 1982)
  88. ^ a b c McKenzie, Roger (w), Miller, Frank (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Marked for Murder!" Daredevil 159 (July 1979)
  89. ^ Smith, Kevin (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Palmiotti, Jimmy (i). "Dystopia" Daredevil v2, 3 (January 1999)
  90. ^ Smith, Kevin (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Palmiotti, Jimmy (i). "Devil's Despair" Daredevil v2, 5 (March 1999)
  91. ^ Smith, Kevin (w), Dodson, Terry (p), Dodson, Rachel (i). "Trickle Down" Spider-Man/Black Cat: The Evil That Men Do 5 (February 2006)
  92. ^ Remender, Rick (w), Peterson, Brandon (a). "Daredevil vs. Psylocke" AVX Vs 4 (September 2012)
  93. ^ Richards, Dave (April 3, 2009). "The Man Who Would Be King(pin): Irvine on Daredevil Noir". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2009. 
  94. ^ "Stick". Marvel Directory. 2001. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2009. 
  95. ^ a b "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empire. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2009. 
  96. ^ "Wizard's 200 Greatest Comic Characters of All Time". Razorfine.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  97. ^ Cronin, Brian (January 18, 2008). "Top 511 Marvel Characters #1–511". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  98. ^ Goldstein, Hilary (August 11, 2006). "The Ten Best Marvel Comics". IGN. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  99. ^ "#10 Top Comic Book Heroes". IGN. May 6, 2011. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  100. ^ "1993 Comic Buyer's Guide Fan Awards". HahnLibrary.net. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  101. ^ "2000s Eisner Award Recipients". San Diego Comic Con. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  102. ^ "2010s Eisner Award Recipients". San Diego Comic Co. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  103. ^ a b Brady, Matt (March 16, 2007). "Daredevil: Battlin' Jack Murdock Debuts in June". Newsarama. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  104. ^ "Daredevil Comic News and Events". Daredevil-Movies.com. 2005. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  105. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Duel with Daredevil" The Amazing Spider-Man 16 (September 1964)
  106. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The Mystery of the Midnight Stalker!" Daredevil 24 (January 1967)
  107. ^ Slott, Dan (w), Romita, Jr, John (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Last Legs" The Amazing Spider-Man 600 (September 2009)
  108. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael; Maleev, Alex (October 2006). Daredevil, Vol. 6: Lowlife. Marvel Comics. p. 120. ISBN 978-0785111054. 
  109. ^ "Ben Urich". Marvel Directory. 2001. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  110. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Maleev, Alex (p), Maleev, Alex (i). "I'm Not Afraid of You" Daredevil v2, 35 (September 2002)
  111. ^ "Elektra". Marvel Directory. 2001. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  112. ^ Brubaker, Ed (w), Lark, Michael; Djurdjević, Marko; Romita, Sr., John; Colan, Gene; Sienkiewicz, Bill; Maleev, Alex; Bermejo, Lee (p), Gaudiano, Stefano; Djurdjević, Marko; Milgrom, Al; Colan, Gene; Sienkiewicz, Bill; Maleev, Alex; Bermejo, Lee (i). "Without Fear Part One" Daredevil v2, 100 (October 2007)
  113. ^ Brubaker, Ed (w), Lark, Michael (p), Azaceta, Paul; Gaudiano, Stefano; Palmer, Tom (i). "Without Fear Part Five" Daredevil v2, 104 (March 2008)
  114. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Orlando, Joe (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "The Owl, Ominous Overlord of Crime!" Daredevil 3 (August 1964)
  115. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Orlando, Joe (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "Killgrave, the Unbelievable Purple Man!" Daredevil 4 (October 1964)
  116. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Wood, Wally (p), Wood, Wally (i). "Trapped By the Fellowship of Fear" Daredevil 6 (February 1965)
  117. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Wood, Wally (p), Wood, Wally (i). "The Stiltman Cometh!" Daredevil 8 (June 1965)
  118. ^ Lee, Stan; O'Neil, Denny (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "There Shall Come a Gladiator" Daredevil 18 (July 1966)
  119. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Colan, Gene (p), Adkins, Dan (i). "Nobody Laughs at the Jester!" Daredevil 42 (July 1968)
  120. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Horns of the Bull!" Daredevil 78 (July 1971)
  121. ^ Gerber, Steve (w), Brown, Bob (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "When Strikes the Gladiator!" Daredevil 113 (September 1974)
  122. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Brown, Bob (p), Janson, Klaus (i). "Watch Out For Bullseye He Never Misses!" Daredevil 131 (March 1976)
  123. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (2013). "Daredevil/Black Widow TV Series (1975)". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  124. ^ a b "Daredevil in Animation – A Retrospective". Marvel Animation Age. p. 3. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. 
  125. ^ a b Mark Evanier, quoted in: Cronin, Brian (March 20, 2008). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #147". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2009. 
  126. ^ Comics Feature #33 (1985), cited in: "Media: Cartoons: Proposed Daredevil Cartoon". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. 
  127. ^ Howe, Sean (2012). Marvel Comics: The Untold Story. HarperCollins. p. 261. ISBN 978-0061992100. 
  128. ^ Goldman, Eric (May 2, 2012). "The Avengers: Hulk's TV History – A look back at the Green Goliath on television". IGN. p. 2. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  129. ^ "And a Blind Man Shall Lead Them". Marvel Animation Age. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2009. 
  130. ^ Lieberman, David (November 7, 2013). "Netflix Picks Up Four Marvel Live-Action Series & A Mini Featuring Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Iron Fist, Luke Cage For 2015 Launch". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  131. ^ "Drew Goddard Joins Daredevil on Netflix". Marvel Comics. December 6, 2013. Archived from the original on December 7, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  132. ^ "Marvel TV head: Daredevil starts shooting in July, Jessica Jones next up". HitFix. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  133. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (May 24, 2014). "Marvel's Netflix Drama Daredevil Taps New Showrunner (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 24, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014. 
  134. ^ "Charlie Cox to Star in Daredevil TV Series for Marvel and Netflix". Variety. May 27, 2014. Archived from the original on September 11, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  135. ^ "Venom/Spider-Man: Separation Anxiety". IGN. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2009. 
  136. ^ Shinobi. "Spider-Man: Web of Fire". Shinforce.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2009. 
  137. ^ "Daredevil (TM) for Nintendo Game Boy(R) Advance Goes Gold". PRNewswire.com. December 11, 2002. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  138. ^ "David Kaye". BehindTheVoiceActors.com. 2013. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  139. ^ "Voice Compare: Daredevil: Matt Murdock". BehindTheVoiceActors.com. July 29, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  140. ^ Denick, Thom (2006). Marvel Ultimate Alliance: Signature Series Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Brady Games. pp. 42–43. ISBN 0-7440-0844-1. 
  141. ^ "Marvel Costume Kit 1". Sony. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2012. 
  142. ^ "New Heroes Revealed at PAX 2012!". Marvel Heroes. August 31, 2012. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  143. ^ "Galactus Lands in New LEGO Marvel Super Heroes Trailer". Marvel Comics. August 21, 2013. Archived from the original on December 7, 2014. 
  144. ^ "Marvel Legends Series 3". MarvelLegends.net. December 2002. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  145. ^ a b Crawford, Michael (2009). "Toy Box: Marvel Universe Surfer, Spidey, Daredevil and Human Torch". ASiteCalledFred.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  146. ^ a b c St-Louis, Hervé (March 24, 2004). "Spider-Man Classics Daredevil". ComicBookBin.com. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  147. ^ "The Classic Marvel Figurine Collection". Marvel-figurines.co.uk. 2005. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 

External links[edit]