Frame (networking)

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A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication. A frame typically includes frame synchronization features consisting of a sequence of bits or symbols that indicate to the receiver the beginning and end of the payload data within the stream of symbols or bits it receives. If a receiver is connected to the system in the middle of a frame transmission, it ignores the data until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence.

In computer networking, a frame is a data packet in Layer 2 of the OSI model.[1] A frame is "the unit of transmission in a link layer protocol, and consists of a link layer header followed by a packet."[2] Examples are Ethernet frames, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames, and V.42 modem frames.

In telecommunications, specifically in time-division multiplex (TDM) and time-division multiple access (TDMA) variants, a frame is a cyclically repeated data block that consists of a fixed number of time slots, one for each logical TDM channel or TDMA transmitter. In this context, a frame is typically an entity at the physical layer. TDM application examples are SONET/SDH and the ISDN circuit switched B-channel, while TDMA examples are the 2G and 3G circuit-switched cellular voice services. The frame is also an entity for time-division duplex, where the mobile terminal may transmit during some timeslots and receive during others.

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  1. ^ "Data Link Layer (Layer 2)". The TCP/IP Guide. 2005-09-20. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  2. ^ "RFC 1122: Requirements for Internet Hosts — Communication Layers". IETF. October 1989. p. 18. RFC 1122. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1122#page-18. Retrieved 2010-06-07.