The Duluth Model or Domestic Abuse Intervention Project is a program developed to reduce domestic violence against women. It is named after Duluth, Minnesota, the city where it was developed. The program was largely founded by Ellen Pence and Michael Paymar.
As of 2006[update], the Duluth Model is the most common batterer intervention program used in the United States. It is based on a feminist theory positing that "domestic violence is the result of patriarchal ideology in which men are encouraged and expected to control their partners". Critics argue that its ideological basis reduces its effectiveness.
Origin and theory
The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project was the first multi-disciplinary program designed to address the issue of domestic violence. This experimental program, conducted in Duluth, Minnesota in 1981, coordinated the actions of a variety of agencies dealing with domestic conflict. The program has become a model for programs in other jurisdictions seeking to deal more effectively with domestic violence.
According to the Duluth Model, "women and children are vulnerable to violence because of their unequal social, economic, and political status in society".
The Duluth Model is based on a "violence is patriarchal" model. The model focuses solely on the men's use of violence in abusive relationships, rather than on the behavior of all parties concerned. This helps the men to focus on changing their personal behavior in order to be nonviolent in any relationship.
The program's philosophy is illustrated by the "Power and Control Wheel", typically displayed as a poster in participating locations.
A US study published in 2002 sponsored by the federal government found that batterers who complete programs based on the "Duluth Model," are less likely to repeat acts of domestic violence than those who do not complete any batterers intervention program.
A 2005 study led by Larry Bennett, a professor of social work at the University of Illinois at Chicago and an expert on batterer intervention programs, found that of the 30 batterer intervention programs in Cook County, Illinois, 15 percent of batterers who completed the programs were rearrested for domestic violence, compared with 37 percent of those who dropped out of the programs. However, Bennett said the studies are largely meaningless because they lacked a proper control group. He added that participants who complete domestic violence programs are likely to be more motivated than others to improve behavior and would be less inclined to offend again.
According to critics, programs based on the Duluth Model may ignore research linking domestic violence to substance abuse and psychological problems, such as attachment disorders, traced to childhood abuse or neglect, or the absence of a history of adequate socialization and training. Some criticize the Duluth model as being overly confrontational rather than therapeutic, focusing solely on changing the abuser's actions and attitudes rather than dealing with underlying emotional and psychological issues. Donald Dutton, a psychology professor at the University of British Columbia who has studied abusive personalities, states: "The Duluth Model was developed by people who didn't understand anything about therapy."
Its proponents counter that the Duluth model is effective and makes best use of scarce resources.
- Linda G. Mills (2009). Violent Partners: A Breakthrough Plan for Ending the Cycle of Abuse. Basic Books. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7867-3187-9.
- Wayne Bennett; Kären Hess (2006). Criminal Investigation (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 281. ISBN 0-495-09340-8.
- Domestic Abuse Intervention Project: History
- "The Duluth Model". Minnesota Program Development, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008.
- Janice Haaken (2010). Hard Knocks: Domestic Violence and the Psychology of Storytelling. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-135-15734-0.
- Twohey, Megan (2 January 2009). "How Can Domestic Violence Be Stopped?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
- Fisher, Andy, Rick Goodwin and Mark Patton. 2009. “Men & Healing: Theory, Research, and Practice in Working with Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.” The Men's Project, Funded by the Cornwall Public Inquiry
- Michael Paymar and Graham Barnes, "Countering Confusion About the Duluth Model", Battered Women’s Justice Project, Minneapolis, Minnesota
- "Power and Control Film". Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Ellen Pence; Michael Paymar (1993). Education Groups for Men Who Batter: The Duluth Model. Springer Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8261-7990-6.
- Donald G Dutton (2006). Rethinking Domestic Violence. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-5987-5.; review by Walter S. DeKeseredy in Canadian Journal of Sociology Online November – December 2007
- Muslim Wheel of Domestic Violence a variation of the Duluth Power and Control Wheel