Force de Frappe
||This article is missing information about individual French nuclear tests, despite the fact that French nuclear testing redirects here. (December 2012)|
The Force de Frappe (French: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961 , is the designation of what used to be a triad of air-, sea- and land-based nuclear weapons intended for dissuasion, the French term for deterrence. The French Nuclear Force, part of the Armed Forces of France, is the third largest nuclear-weapons force in the world, following the nuclear triads of the Russian Federation and the United States.
France deactivated all its land-based nuclear missile silos in 1996 and no longer has land-based nuclear missiles. On 27 January 1996, France conducted its last nuclear test (in the South Pacific) before signing the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996. In March 2008, President Nicolas Sarkozy of France confirmed reports giving the actual size of France's nuclear arsenal, and he announced that France will reduce its French Air Force-carried nuclear arsenal by one-third, leaving the Force de Frappe with just under 300 warheads.
The decision to arm France with nuclear weapons was made in 1954 by the administration of Pierre Mendès-France under the Fourth Republic. President Charles de Gaulle, upon his return to power in 1958, solidified the initial vision into the well-defined concept of a fully independent Force de Frappe capable of protecting France from a Soviet or other foreign attack, independent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which President de Gaulle considered to be dominated by the United States to an unacceptable degree. In particular, France was concerned that in the event of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe, the United States - already bogged down in the War in Vietnam and afraid of Soviet retaliation against the United States proper - would not come to the aid of its Allies in Western Europe. According to de Gaulle, France should never trust its defense and therefore its very existence to a foreign and thus unreliable protector.
The strategic concept behind the Force de Frappe is one of countervalue, i.e., the capacity to inflict so much damage on a potential (and more powerful) adversary's population that it will be deterred from attacking (see Mutual Assured Destruction). This principle is usually referred to in French political debate as dissuasion du faible au fort (Weak-to-strong deterrence) and was summarized in a statement attributed to President de Gaulle himself:
|“||Within ten years, we shall have the means to kill 80 million Russians. I truly believe that one does not light-heartedly attack people who are able to kill 80 million Russians, even if one can kill 800 million French, that is if there were 800 million French.||”|
In his book La paix nucléaire (1975), French Admiral de Joybert explained deterrence as:
|“||Sir, I have no quarrel with you, but I warn you in advance and with all possible clarity that if you invade me, I shall answer at the only credible level for my scale, which is the nuclear level. Whatever your defenses, you shan't prevent at least some of my missiles from reaching your home and cause the devastation that you know. So, renounce your endeavour and let us stay good friends.||”|
France carried out its first test of an atomic bomb in Algeria in 1960 and some operational French nuclear weapons became available in 1964. Then, France executed its first test of the much more powerful hydrogen bomb over its South Pacific Ocean test range in 1968; this first hydrogen bomb was dropped from a strategic bomber.
President de Gaulle's vision of the Force de Frappe featured the same triad of air-based, land-based and sea-based weapons deployed by both the United States and the Soviet Union. Work on these components had started in the late 1950s and was accelerated as soon as de Gaulle became the President of France.
Initially, the Force de Frappe consisted of an air-based component of the Command des Forces Aeriennes Strategique (CFAS) of the French Air Force, established in 1955 and operating 40 Sud Aviation Vautour IIB bombers. These bombers were considered marginal for this strategic bomber role and work began almost immediately on a replacement. In May 1956, a requirement for what became the Dassault Mirage IV strategic bomber was drawn up; this bomber was designed to carry nuclear gravity bombs over targets in the Eastern bloc at supersonic speeds. This component was declared operational in October 1964 and has been modernized since then. The Mirage IVP (Penetration) version armed with the ASMP-A missile entered service in 1986. All bomber versions of the Mirage IV were retired in 1996 and replaced by the Mirage 2000N (which entered service from 1988). The new longer-ranged ASMP-A missile entered service in 2009. The Mirage 2000N is scheduled to be replaced by the Dassault Rafale F3.
The land-based component of the French nuclear triad was added in August 1971 with the operational readiness of the 18-silo Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile arsenal at the Plateau d'Albion in the Vaucluse region of southern France. Later, this land-based component was augmented with the mobile short-range Pluton missile and Hadès missile, which were designed to be launched from the front lines at any approaching foreign army. To defend against a Soviet/Warsaw Pact invasion of West Germany, these could be deployed with the French Army in the French Zone of Germany in western Germany.
Since the French military judged that a full-scale invasion of Western Europe by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact Allies was unlikely to be stopped by conventional armaments, these short-range nuclear missiles were meant as a "final warning" (ultime avertissement in French) which would tell the aggressor that any further advances would trigger a nuclear armageddon upon its major cities and other important targets.
The Pluton missile, introduced in 1974, was retired from service and scrapped beginning in 1993 and its successor, the Hadès missile, was produced in limited numbers during the early 1990s and then withdrawn from the Army and placed in arsenal storage in 1995. Next, the French Government decided to eliminate all of these missiles and the last Hadès was dismantled on 23 June 1997. That was the end of the French mobile land-based nuclear missiles.
The French fixed IRBMs at the Albion missile base, were considered to be approaching obsolescence and also deemed to be no longer necessary following the fall of the Soviet Union, were also disposed of and the Albion missile base was closed in 1999. Thus, the land-based missile leg of the French nuclear triad has been eliminated.
The ocean-based, mobile component of the French nuclear triad entered service in December 1971 with the commissioning of its first ballistic missile submarine, the nuclear submarine Le Redoutable, which carried 16 M4 Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles similar to the American and British Polaris missiles.
Since then, the ocean-based French nuclear weapons have been expanded to a squadron of four submarines, two of which are always kept out of port and on patrol. Since 1985, some of the French ballistic missile submarines have become obsolete, have been retired and replaced by newer missile submarines, also with 16 missile tubes apiece and carrying more-advanced French M45 missile. A new submarine Le Terrible was put into service on 20 September 2010 armed with the M51 missile similar to the American Trident II.
The Aeronautique Navale (Aeronavale) or French Naval Aviation has operated a fleet of nuclear-armed aircraft since 1962, with the Dassault Etendard IV on its Clemenceau class aircraft carriers. The Etendard was armed with AN-52 nuclear gravity bombs. In 1978, the Dassault Super Etendard entered service, giving the Aeronavale a stand-off nuclear strike ability via its Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (ASMP) nuclear missiles. The Clemenceaus were retired in 1997 and 2000 with the Super Etendard remaining in service on the succeeding R91 Charles-de-Gaulle.
Present state 
Land-based component 
France no longer possesses land-based nuclear missiles. The IRBM base at the Plateau d'Albion (Vaucluse region) was deactivated in 1999, and its missiles scrapped. All French Army units equipped with short-range missiles such as the Pluton and the Hadès have also been disbanded, and their missiles scrapped.
All of the nuclear warheads from the above have been dismantled, and their fissile nuclear materials recycled.
Sea-based component 
- Six Redoutable class submarines, armed with 16 M4 IRBMs entered service between 1971 and 1985. The last of these, the L'Inflexible (S 615), was retired from service in 2008.
- One Le Terrible (S 619) commissioned in 2010, armed with 16 of the more modern M51 missile, successfully tested in 2010.
- Three Triomphant-class SSBNs: the Le Triomphant (S 616), the Le Téméraire (S 617), the Le Vigilant (S 618), armed with 16 of the more modern M45 missile. They will be upgraded to the new M51 missile by 2018, Le Vigilant will be the first to be upgraded, starting in 2011.
Air-based component 
- About 50 arm the Air Force and these can be carried by the Mirage 2000N long-range multirole fighter, which replaced the Mirage IV A(ttaque)and P(enetration) versions. The newer warplanes are based at the Luxeuil Air Base, the Istres Air Base, and the Avord Air Base. Since 1 July 2010, a new squadron of Rafale N (N for Nuclear) has been declared fully operational as the EC 1/91 Gascogne in Saint-Dizier BA 113.
- About 10 more arm the Aviation navale and these can be carried by the French Navy's Rafale (M version, for Marine). These warplanes are based at Landivisiau Naval Air Base when ashore, and on the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle when she is at sea. They can also be operated from air bases on land. The Rafale M can also be operated from US Navy aircraft carriers, and is the only foreign nuclear armed aircraft that can be.
The locations of all of the nuclear missiles are a secret (several storage facilities are known to the public, but the number of warheads inside is highly classified and changes frequently).
See also 
- France and weapons of mass destruction (includes more detailed discussion of nuclear testing)
- List of states with nuclear weapons
- List of nuclear weapons tests
- Nuclear weapon
- Gunston, Bill. Bombers of the West. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons; 1973. p104
- "France to reduce nuclear arsenal, warns of Iran danger". 21 March 2008.
- Gunston, Bill. Bombers of the West. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons; 1973. p103
- Serge Gadal, (2009). Forces aériennes stratégiques: histoire des deux premières composantes de la dissuasion nucléaire française. Economica. p.86. ISBN 2717857583. Quote: "Dans dix ans, nous aurons de quoi tuer 80 millions de Russes. Eh bien je crois qu'on n'attaque pas volontiers des gens qui ont de quoi tuer 80 millions de Russes, même si on a soi-même de quoi tuer 800 millions de Français, à supposer qu'il y eût 800 millions de Français."
- Gunston, Bill. Bombers of the West. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons; 1973. p105
- Les Redoutable : Histoire d'une aventure technique, humaine et stratégique, meretmarine
- Blair, W. Granger (13 February 1960). "France Explodes Her First A-Bomb in a Sahara Test". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- Mer et Marine : Toute l'actualité maritime
- (French) Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix et les Conflits, Etat des forces nucléaires françaises au 15 août 2004