Voter turnout was greatest in the Pfalz region, where 98.4% of register voters cast ballots. At 90%, it was lowest in the affluent Berlin neighbourhood of Potsdam. In East Prussia, the stronghold of the Junkers, support for withdrawal reached 97.3%, while in Hamburg, formerly a communist strongold, only 83.9% voted affirmatively. This regional variation was repeated in the referendum of 1934. In general the Catholic parts of the country were more favourable and the cities least favourable to withdrawal, but overall support was higher than for granting Hitler presidential powers in 1934. Of the democratic nature of the referendum, political scientist Arnold Zurcher writes that "there undoubtedly was a great deal" of "intangible official pressure", but "[probably very little] downright coercion and intimidation at the polls".