Human resource development
Human Resources Development (HRD) as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement. Adam Smith states, “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. The same statement applies to organizations themselves, but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas.
Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change. Also, HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs.
Six journals that emphasize human resource development issues include:
Advances in Developing Human Resources: http://adh.sagepub.com/
Human Resource Development International: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rhrd20/current
Human Resource Development Quarterly: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1532-1096
Human Resource Development Review: http://hrd.sagepub.com/
New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-NHA3.html
T&D Magazine: http://www.astd.org/Publications/Magazines/TD
Process, practice and relation to other fields
- training and development (TD): the development of human expertise for the purpose of improving performance
- organization development (OD): empowering the organization to take advantage of its human resource capital
TD alone can leave an organization unable to tap into the increase in human, knowledge or talent capital. OD alone can result in an oppress rce[clarification needed]. HRD practicitioners find the interstices of win/win solutions that develop the employee and the organization in a mutually beneficial manner. HRD does not occur without the organization, so the practice of HRD within an organization is inhibited or promoted upon the platform of the organization's mission, vision and values.
Other typical HRD practices include:
- executive and supervisory/management development
- new-employee orientation
- professional-skills training
- technical/job training
- customer-service training
- sales-and-marketing training
- health-and-safety training
HRD positions in businesses, health care, non-profit, and other fields include:
- HRD manager
- vice-president of organizational effectiveness
- training manager or director
- management development specialist
- blended-learning designer
- training-needs analyst
- chief learning officer
- individual career-development advisor
As a Program of Study in Formal Education
Academic programs in Human Resource Development (HRD) are available at both the undergraduate and graduate level.
Having become available only in 1980, one of the more well-known universities offering degrees in Human Resource Development is the University of Minnesota. By 2011, many universities offered Human Resource Development degrees (both graduate and undergraduate).
- Kelly 2001
- Kelly 2001
- Swanson 2008
- Swanson 2011
- Swanson 2011
- Swanson 2010
- University of Minnesota HRD Program
- Elwood F. Holton II, James W. Trott, Jr. (1996). "Trends Toward a Closer Integration of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development", Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, p7
- Kelly D. (2001). Dual Perceptions of HRD: Issues for Policy: SME’s, Other Constituencies, and the Contested Definitions of Human Resource Development, http://ro.uow.edu.au/artspapers/26
- Kelly D. (2006). Human Resource Development: For Enterprise and Human Development, http://ro.uow.edu.au/artspapers/114.
- Nadler L Ed. (1984). The Handbook of Human Resources Development, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Xavier University HRD Program. http://www.xavier.edu/hrd
- University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. http://www.uark.edu
- Swanson, Richard A., Elwood F. Holton III (2011). "Foundations of Human Resource Development"
- Swanson, Richard A. (2008). "A Brief on the Foundations of Human Resource Development"
- University of Minnesota HRD Program. http://www.universities.com/edu/Bachelor_degrees_in_Human_Resources_Development_page2.html
- Woodall, J. (2001). HRDI special issue: defining HRD. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 287. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
- HRDI. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/routledge/13678868.html