Columbian mammoth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from M. columbi)
Jump to: navigation, search
Columbian mammoth
Temporal range: Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene, 0.013–0.011Ma
Columbian mammoth.JPG
Composite skeleton in the Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits, Los Angeles
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Elephantidae
Genus: Mammuthus
Species: M. columbi
Binomial name
Mammuthus columbi
(Falconer, 1857)
Synonyms

The Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was a species of mammoth of the Quaternary period that appeared in North America (in the present United States and to as far south as Nicaragua and Honduras) during the late Pleistocene.

The Columbian mammoth reached 4 m (13 ft) at the shoulders, and it weighed up to about 10 tonnes.

Taxonomy[edit]

Partial holotype molar, 1863

The Columbian mammoth was first scientifically described by Scottish naturalist Hugh Falconer in 1857, based on a partial upper molar found during the excavation of the Brunswick Altamaha Canal.[1]

American mammoths were classified in many different genera until the start of the 20th century.[2] Larry Agenbroad, a respected researcher, believes that M. imperator is a non-valid name given to unusually large M. columbi. Given that proboscidean tusks grow throughout the animal's life, older animals will tend to have longer tusks, which are more likely to cross. He has also mooted the alternative interpretation that M. imperator represents a subspecies of large M. columbi.[3] This has also been accepted by other scientists.[4]

Evolution[edit]

The "Huntington mammoth", morphologically a Columbian mammoth, but genetically nested within woolly mammoths

The earliest known proboscideans, the clade that contains the elephants, existed about 55 million years ago around the Tethys Sea area. The closest living relatives of the Proboscidea are the sirenians and the hyraxes. The family elephantidae existed six million years ago in Africa, and includes the living elephants and the mammoths. Among many now extinct clades, the mastodon is only a distant relative of the mammoths, and part of the distinct family Mammutidae, which diverged 25 million years before the mammoths evolved.[5] The following cladogram shows the placement of the Columbian mammoth among other proboscideans, based on hyoid characteristics:[6]




Mammut americanum (American mastodon)




Gomphotherium sp.




Stegodon zdanskyi




Loxodonta africana (African elephant)




Elephas maximus (Asian elephant)



Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth)








M. jeffersonii, a possible hybrid between Columbian and woolly mammoths

Since many remains of each species of mammoth are known from several localities, it is possible to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus through morphological studies. Mammoth species can be identified from the number of enamel ridges on their molars; primitive species had few ridges, and the number increased gradually as new species evolved and replaced the preceding ones. The crowns of the teeth lengthened and the skulls became taller to accommodate this. At the same time, the skulls became shorter from front to back to minimise the weight.[7] These adaptations were acquired gradually as mammoths turned to more abrasive food items.[8]

The first known members of the genus Mammuthus are the African species M. subplanifrons from the Pliocene, and M. africanavus from the Pleistocene. The former is thought to be the ancestor of later forms. Mammoths entered Europe around 3 million years ago. The earliest type known from there has been named M. rumanus, which spread across Europe and China. Only its molars are known, which show that it had 8–10 enamel ridges. A population evolved 12–14 ridges, splitting off from and replacing the earlier type, becoming M. meridionalis. In turn, this species was replaced by the steppe mammoth, M. trogontherii, with 18–20 ridges, which evolved in eastern Asia c. 1 million years ago. Mammoths derived from M. trogontherii evolved molars with 26 ridges 200,000 years ago in Siberia and became the woolly mammoth, M. primigenius.[7] The Columbian mammoth, M. columbi, evolved from a population of M. trogontherii that had entered North America. A 2011 genetic study showed that two examined specimens of the Columbian mammoth were grouped within a subclade of woolly mammoths. This suggests that the two populations interbred and produced fertile offspring. A North American form known as M. jeffersonii may be a hybrid between the two species.[9]

A 2014 study concluded that asphalt may degrade DNA of animals deposited in it, after attempting to extract DNA from a Columbian mammoth from the La Brea tar Pits.[10]

Description[edit]

Restoration by Charles R. Knight, 1904

The shoulder height of the Columbian mammoth reached 4 m (13 ft), and it weighed up to about 10 tonnes, which is equal to the weight of 130 adult humans. This is larger than modern African elephants and the woolly mammoth, which reach about 2.7 to 3.4 m (9-11 ft). Female mammoths were smaller and more lighter built than males. Soft tissue of Columbian and other mammoths is not known, so much less is known about their appearance than that of the woolly mammoth. They lived in warmer habitats than the woolly mammoth, so they probably lacked many of the adaptations seen in that species. The tail of the Columbian mammoth was intermediate between that of modern elephants and the woolly mammoth.[11]

Petroglyphs from 13.000-11.000 BP, depicting two Columbian mammoth, with a bison superimposed

Hair believed to have belonged to the Columbian mammoth has been discovered in the Bechan Cave, Utah, where mammoth dung has also been found. Some of this hair is coarse, and identical to that known to belong to woolly mammoths. Since this location is so far south, it is unlikely that the hair belonged to woolly mammoths. The distribution and density of this fur on the living animal is unknown.[11]

They had spiralled tusks that could grow up to 4.25 metres (13.9 ft) long.[12]

Palaeobiology[edit]

Skeleton of a juvenile

It was a herbivore, with a diet consisting of varied plant life ranging from grasses to conifers. It is also theorized that the Columbian Mammoth ate the giant fruits of North America, such as the Osage-orange, Kentucky coffee and Honey locust, as there was no other large herbivore in North America at that time that could ingest these fruits. Using studies of African elephants, it has been estimated that a large male would have eaten approximately 700 pounds (320 kg) of plant material daily.[citation needed] The average Columbian mammoth ate 300 pounds of vegetation a day.

Due to its larger size, the Columbian mammoth probably reached higher ages than woolly mammoths, which could reach about 60 years of age. Stomach contents from Columbian mammoth are rare, since no carcasses are known.[11]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Environment near the La Brea Tar Pits, with Columbian mammoth herd in the background, Charles R. Knight, 1921

The Columbian mammoth inhabited the the southern half of North America, which had a more varied habitat than those areas inhabited by woolly mammoths. Some areas were covered by grass, herbaceous plants, trees and shrub; the exact composition varied from region to region, including grassland, savanna-like, and parkland habitats.[11]

Relationship with humans[edit]

Cast of the "Aucilla mammoth" specimen, which bears butcher marks

Extinction[edit]

The Columbian mammoth was one of the last members of the American megafauna to go extinct, with the date of disappearance generally set at approximately 12,500 years ago.[13] However, several specimens have been dated to 9,000 years ago or less, and one near Nashville, Tennessee was dated to only about 7,800 years ago. However, dates younger than 11,000 BP have not been viewed as credible.[14]

Fossil discoveries[edit]

Excavation at the Waco Mammoth Site

The remains of Columbian mammoths were discovered in the La Brea Tar Pits, located in Los Angeles, California, and the skeleton of one of them is on exhibit in that site's museum. The Waco Mammoth Site in Waco, Texas, has, so far, produced a collection of bones from 19 females and juveniles who are believed to have died in the same flood event, as well as the skeletons of other mammoths who died in separate flood events.[15] This mammoth also lived in Mexico, where its remains are very common. A large individual is the central exhibit in the Regional Museum of Guadalajara, in the Mexican state of Jalisco.[16]

Excavation at the Mammoth Site, Hot Springs

In 1998, the Washington State Legislature approved the Columbian mammoth as the state fossil.[17] Additionally, a specimen found in Nebraska in 1922 and named "Archie" is the state's official fossil. "Archie" is currently on display at Elephant Hall in Lincoln, Nebraska, and is the largest mounted mammoth specimen in the United States.[18]

In 2011, two 11,000-13,000 year old petroglyphs thought to depict Columbian mammoths were reported at the San Juan River in Utah.[19] Petroglyphs in the Colorado plateau may depict Columbian mammoths, if they are not mastodons instead.[20]

The most recent excavation of a Columbian mammoth's remains, which were at a site south of Mexico City, was in March 2013. As these remains had been blanketed in thick volcanic ash about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick, ground-penetrating radar) was used to locate the fossil. According to local researchers, the mammoth died circa 10,000 BCE–8,000 BCE, at the age of approximately 30 and was the most complete skeleton ever to be found in the country (approximately 70% total by mid-April). As early as 2012, residents of the nearby town of Santa Ana Tlacotenco uncovered the animal's teeth, which were partially concealed by cacti.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Patterson, D. B.; Mead, A. J.; Bahn, R. A. (2012). "New skeletal remains of Mammuthus columbi from Glynn County, Georgia with notes on their historical and paleoecological significance". Southeastern Naturalist 11 (2): 163–172. doi:10.1656/058.011.0201.  edit
  2. ^ Osborn, H. F. (1936). Percy, M. R., ed. Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world 2. New York: J. Pierpont Morgan Fund. 
  3. ^ Agenbroad, L. D. (2005). "North American Proboscideans: Mammoths: The state of Knowledge, 2003". Quaternary International. 126-128: 73–25. Bibcode:2005QuInt.126...73A. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.016.  edit
  4. ^ McDaniel, G. E.; Jefferson, G. T. (2006). "Mammoths in our midst: The proboscideans of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park®, Southern California, USA". Quaternary International. 142-143: 124. Bibcode:2006QuInt.142..124M. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2005.03.011.  edit
  5. ^ Lister, 2007. pp. 18-21
  6. ^ Shoshani, J.; Tassy, P. (2005). "Advances in proboscidean taxonomy & classification, anatomy & physiology, and ecology & behavior". Quaternary International. 126–128: 5. Bibcode:2005QuInt.126....5S. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.011.  edit
  7. ^ a b Lister, A. M.; Sher, A. V.; Van Essen, H.; Wei, G. (2005). "The pattern and process of mammoth evolution in Eurasia". Quaternary International. 126–128: 49. Bibcode:2005QuInt.126...49L. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.014.  edit
  8. ^ Ferretti, M. P. (2003). "Structure and evolution of mammoth molar enamel". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 3 48: 383–396. 
  9. ^ Enk, J.; Devault, A.; Debruyne, R.; King, C. E.; Treangen, T.; O'Rourke, D.; Salzberg, S. L.; Fisher, D.; MacPhee, R.; Poinar, H. (2011). "Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths". Genome Biology 12 (5): R51. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r51. PMC 3219973. PMID 21627792.  edit
  10. ^ Gold, D. A.; Robinson, J.; Farrell, A. B.; Harris, J. M.; Thalmann, O.; Jacobs, D. K. (2014). "Attempted DNA extraction from a Rancho La Brea Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi): Prospects for ancient DNA from asphalt deposits". Ecology and Evolution 4 (4): 329–336. doi:10.1002/ece3.928.  edit
  11. ^ a b c d Lister, 2007. pp. 77–95
  12. ^ "Quick facts". Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  13. ^ BBC - Science & Nature - Wildfacts - Columbian mammoth
  14. ^ Fiedal, Stuart (2009). "Sudden Deaths: The Chronology of Terminal Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction". In Haynes, Gary. American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. Springer. pp. 21–37. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8793-6_2. ISBN 978-1-4020-8792-9. 
  15. ^ "Waco Mammoth Site - Waco, Texas". Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  16. ^ Boyd, Mildred. "The Regional Museum of Guadalajara". Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  17. ^ "Washington State Fossil". State Symbols USA. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Nebraska State Fossil". State Symbols USA. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  19. ^ Malotki, Ekkehart and Wallace, Henry D. Columbian mammoth petroglyphs from the San Juan River near Bluff, Utah, United States [online]. Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA), Vol. 28, No. 2, Nov 2011
  20. ^ Lister, Adrian; Bahn, Paul (2007). Mammoths - Giants of the Ice Age (3 ed.). London: Frances Lincoln Limited. p. 192. 
  21. ^ "Mammoth remains discovered in Mexico". Light Years. Cable News Network. April 16, 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Lister, A.; Bahn, P. (2007). Mammoths - Giants of the Ice Age (3 ed.). London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-520-26160-0. 

External links[edit]