The Master Musicians of Jajouka led by Bachir Attar
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2009)|
|Master Musicians of Jajouka|
Sufi music of Morocco
|Labels||Rolling Stones Records, Adelphi, Axiom, Womad, PolyGram, Jajouka Records Inc.|
|Associated acts||Brian Jones,
The Rolling Stones
The first recordings by the Master Musicians of Jajouka who were led by Bachir Attar's father, Hadj Abdessalem Attar, included recordings with Brian Jones (Brian Jones Presents the Pipes of Pan at Jajouka, 1971 AFM/1995 Point Music), Joel Rubiner (The Master Musicians of Jajouka, Adelphi), and Ornette Coleman (Dancing in Your Head).
Led today by Bachir Attar, the younger generation of the group has recorded under the names "Master Musicians of Jajouka" and "Master Musicians of Jajouka Featuring Bachir Attar" with The Rolling Stones (Steel Wheels, 1989), Bill Laswell (Apocalypse Across the Sky, Axiom Records, 1992), Tchad Blake (Jajouka Between the Mountains, WOMAD/Real World Records, 1996), Talvin Singh (The Master Musicians of Jajouka Featuring Bachir Attar, Point Music, 2000), Lee Ranaldo (Crossing Border Fest, The Hague, 2003), Bernardo Bertolucci (The Sheltering Sky film soundtrack), Nicolas Roeg (Bad Timing film soundtrack), and others.
Bachir Attar has recorded with artists such as Elliott Sharp, Maceo Parker, Ginger Baker and Deborah Harry. The Master Musicians of Jajouka and Bachir have also toured with the artists Ornette Coleman, Steve Lacy and Critters Buggin.
[T]here are currently two groups of musicians claiming to be the 'real' Master Musicians OF Jajouka/Joujouka (they're even arguing over the spelling). One group, the 'Jajouka' faction, is led by Bachir Attar, whose father was the leader of the group in the 60s when Brian Jones and Ornette Coleman made their visits.... The 'Joujouka' faction is in the care of Mohammed Hamri, who has been involved with the village since the 50s and 60s, and who had a hand in bringing Brion Gysin and Paul Bowles there.
Inconsistent English rendering of the village's name compounds the issue. For example, RE/Search uses both spellings in an interview with Brion Gysin: "Jajouka" for the village name, and "Joujouka" for the album Brian Jones Presents the Pipes of Pan at Joujouka.
Music and instruments
The Jajouka flute is called the "lira" and is considered the oldest instrument in Jajouka. The double-reed instrument is called the rhaita; it is similar to an oboe, but possessing a louder sound and more penetrating tone. The drum is called the "tebel" and is made of goat-skin and played with two wooden sticks. There is also another goat-skin drum called the "tarija" which allows for more fast-paced virtuosity.
The music itself is considered to be part of the Sufi tradition of Islam. Prior to the colonization of Morocco by France and Spain, master musicians of the village were said to be the royal musicians of the sultans. In past centuries master musicians of the Jajouka village traditionally were excused by the country's rulers from manual labor, goat-herding, and farming to concentrate on their music because the music's powerful trance rhythms and droning woodwinds were traditionally considered to have the power to heal the sick.
The music of the region has a strong connection to Pan. According to the tale, thousands of years ago a goat-man called "Bou Jeloud" appeared to an Attar ancestor in a cave, and danced to his music. The musicians of the village re-enact this event annually.
The group's performance was used on the Rolling Stones' song "Continental Drift" on their 1989 Steel Wheels album, whose recording was documented in author Paul Bowles' Tangier journal, Days and in journalist Stephen Davis's history of the Rolling Stones, Old Gods Almost Dead. An online African Music Encyclopedia quoted Mick Jagger as calling the group "one of the most musically inspiring groups still left on the planet". Also in 1989, they toured a couple of dates with Ornette Coleman. In 1992 an album was produced by Bill Laswell, called Apocalypse Across the Sky. A track from the 1992 sessions also was featured on the 1994 Bill Laswell-produced "Lost in the Translation: Axiom Ambient" various artists compilation.
Excerpts from the song "El Medahey" from The Master Musicians of Jajouka featuring Bachir Attar album Apocalypse Across the Sky were used on the 2000 score of The Cell by Howard Shore. "El Medahey", a standard the group often has played in live performance, was originally composed by Hadj Abdesalam Attar. The group is listed as "Master Musicians of Jajouka" on the liner notes for this and several other soundtracks since 1985, beginning with Ornette: Made in America.
Although the "Master Musicians of Jajouka" name has also been used on film soundtrack appearances and compilations as recently as 2004, beginning with Apocalypse Across the Sky, the Bachir Attar-led generation of the group used the alternate recording name "Master Musicians of Jajouka featuring Bachir Attar" on that album and on two additional ones: Jajouka Between the Mountains and Master Musicians of Jajouka featuring Bachir Attar. The latter album was produced by Talvin Singh on the Point Music label in 2000. The collaboration with Singh expanded the group's sound to a more contemporary audience by including a mixture of traditional acoustic field recordings and electronica-influenced ambient music.
In 2006 and 2007, film professor Augusta Palmer, daughter of the late music journalist Robert Palmer, had production under way on a film called The Hand of Fatima about The Master Musicians of Jajouka, her father, and Bachir Attar. The Master Musicians of Jajouka who are led by Bachir Attar performed in Lisbon, Portugal, in January 2007, and the group performed at the 16th annual Meltdown festival curated by Ornette Coleman at London's Southbank Centre in June 2009, alongside such talents as Yoko Ono and Patti Smith.
- Bachir Attar
- Mustapha Attar
- Mohamed "Hadj" Attar
- Amin Attar
- Mohamed Attar The Mohkadem
- Mohamed Attar Berdouz Jr.
- Hamido Attar
- Abdellah Bohkzar
- Mokhtar Jaghdal
- Abdelzarak "Hadj" Attar
- Bouker Talha
- Ahmed el Ballouti
- Ahmed Bahkat
- Larbi Hlalli Attar
- Abdellah Bokzar
- Tahir Bokzar
- Abdeslam Bokzar
- Mohamed El Hatmi
- Ali Maidoubi
- Ali Nachat
Discography — The Master Musicians of Jajouka
- Brian Jones Presents the Pipes of Pan at Joujouka (1971)
- The Master Musicians of Jajouka (1974)
Discography — group led by Bachir Attar since 1982
- Apocalypse Across the Sky (1992)
- Jajouka Between the Mountains (1996)
- Master Musicians of Jajouka Featuring Bachir Attar (2000)
- Jajouka Live Vol. 1 (2009)
- The Road to Jajouka (2013) (with Medeski Martin & Wood, Mickey Hart, Ornette Coleman, Flea, DJ Logic, John Zorn, Howard Shore).
Film soundtracks and compilation albums
- Ornette: Made in America (1985, film sound track appearance)
- The Sheltering Sky (1990, film soundtrack and film appearance)
- Naked Lunch (1991, film soundtrack appearance)
- Lost in the Translation: Axiom Ambient (1994)
- The Cell (2000, film soundtrack appearance with The London Philharmonic Orchestra)
- Time's Up Live (2001)
- Along Came Polly (2004, film soundtrack appearance)
- Olewnick, Brian. Joujouka Black Eyes at AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- Ranaldo, Lee (August 1996). "Into The Mystic: Lee Ranaldo's Jajouka Journal". The Wire (150).
- Wilson, Terry (1977). "Here to Go: Planet R-101", Soft Need Brion Gysin Special. Appears in V. Vale and Andrea Juno, ed. (1982). RE/Search #4/5: William S. Burroughs/Brion Gysin/Throbbing Gristle. RE/Search. pp. 46–50. ISBN 0-9650469-1-5.
- "The Hand of Fatima". The Hand of Fatima film site. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2007.
- (French) Alaoui, Mehdi Sekkouri. "Souvenirs. Sur les traces des Rolling Stones". Telquel Online. Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- Barry, James "The Cell Soundtrack: Review". SoundtrackNet. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- Bowles, Paul (1991). Days. The Ecco Press. ISBN 0-88001-269-2.
- Burroughs, William S. (August 1973). "'Face to Face'", Oui.
- Davis, Stephen (2001). Old Gods Almost Dead. Broadway Books, 135–37, 172, 195–201, 227; 233–34, 248–53, 270, 354, 504–05, 508.
- Fariborz, Arian (2005). "The Master Musicians of Joujouka: The Faded Myth of the Goat-God". Qantara.de. Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- Gross, Jason (June 2000). "Master Musicians of Jajouka: Bachir Attar Interview". Perfect Sound Forever. Retrieved Jan. 22, 2007.
- Kettlewell, Ben. "Features: The Master Musicians of Jajouka". Alternate Music Press. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- La Briola, John (August 30, 2001). Mystic Muses: Musical Shamans Keep the Flame Alive During a Rare Visit to Denver". Denver Westword. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- "The Master Musicians of Jajouka". The African Music Encyclopedia. Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- "The Master Musicians of Jajouka - Biography". All About Jazz (August 31, 2001). Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- "Master Musicians of Jajouka: Biography. World Music Central. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- "The Master Musicians of Jajouka Music Credits". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- (French) Mellouki, Ilham (June 30, 2006). "Mémoire. Le fabuleux destin des Jajouka". Telquel Online. Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- Palmer, Robert (March 23, 1989). "Into the Mystic". Rolling Stone.
- Palmer, Robert (October 14, 1971). "Jajouka: Up the Mountain". Rolling Stone.
- Palmer, Robert (December 19, 1971). "Music for a Moroccan Pan". The New York Times.
- Palmer, Robert (January 12, 1975). "Trance Music — a Trend of the 1970s". The New York Times.
- Palmer, Robert (June 11, 1992). "Up the Mountain". Rolling Stone.
- Pareles, Jon (August 27, 1989). "Still the Stones, but There's a Catch". The New York Times.
- Ranaldo, Lee (August 1996). "Into The Mystic". The Wire. Retrieved Jan. 14, 2007.
- Rosenberg, Jeff; with Flessas, Daniel contributor (September 26, 2001). "The Masterminds: Bachir Attar and Mustapha Attar Launch the Ancient Traditions of Morocco's Mountains into the 21st Century". Willamette Week Online. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- Schuyler, Philip (2000) "Joujouka/Jajouka/Zahjoukah -- Moroccan Music and Euro-American Imagination", in Armbrust, Walter, editor. "Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East and Beyond". Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
- Strauss, Neil (October 12, 1995). "The Pop Life: To Save Jajouka, How About a Mercedes in the Village?". The New York Times.
- Tsioulcas, Anastasia. "Master Musicians of Jajouka". National Geographic World Music. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- Tsioulcas, Anastasia (September 1, 2005). "World Music Features: Magical, Mystical Morocco". Global Rhythm. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2007.
- Turner, Steve. "When Keef Met Mr. Kif: ... in Morocco's land of forbidden pleasures". The Mail on Sunday: 35, 37. April 20, 2008.
- "Videos — Ornette: Made in America". Synergistic Press Videos. Retrieved Jan. 30, 2007.
- The Master Musicians of Jajouka official web site
- Master Musicians of Jajouka official MySpace.com page
- The Master Musicians of Jajouka at AllMusic
- The Hand of Fatima Film site about Master Musicians of Jajouka
- The Rolling Stones in Morocco, a segment of the BBC television film with Mick Jagger and Bachir Attar in Jajouka and Tangier, The Master Musicians of Jajouka. (YouTube.com)
- Band biography at Jambase
- Interview with Bachir Attar in The Walrus, Toronto (9 July 2008)
- Group historical documents, including a 1994 letter from William Burroughs to the group and a 1996 letter from Joel Rubiner (producer of the 1974 album The Master Musicians of Jajouka) to promoters of Master Musicians of Joujouka about band name history issues and a photo.
- Lion-Auriga Music Publishing Master Musicians of Jajouka featuring Bachir Attar artist page