|Based in||San Francisco|
Maximumrocknroll, often written as Maximum Rocknroll and usually abbreviated as MRR, is a not-for-profit monthly zine of punk subculture. Based in San Francisco, MRR focuses on punk rock and hardcore music, and primarily features artist interviews and music reviews. Op/ed columns and news roundups are regular features as well, including submissions from international contributors. By 1990, it "had become the de facto bible of the scene".MRR is considered to be one of the most important zines in punk, not only because of its wide-ranging coverage, but because it has been a consistent and influential presence in the ever-changing punk community for over three decades.
Maximumrocknroll originated as punk radio show on Berkeley's KPFA in the late 1970s, but it is in its zine form that MRR exerted its greatest influence and became as close to an institution as punk ideology allows. It was founded by Tim Yohannan in 1982 as the newsprint booklet insert in Not So Quiet on the Western Front, a compilation LP released on the then-Dead Kennedys' label Alternative Tentacles. The compilation included forty-seven bands from Northern California and nearby areas.
The first issues focused on the local and regional music scenes, but the coverage soon expanded to the entire continent and, by issue five, cover stories included features on Brazilian and Dutch underground punk. In the '80s, MRR was one of the very few US fanzines that insisted on the international scope of the punk movement, and strove to cover scenes around the world. Today the zine has surpassed its 300th issue, and continues to include international content and a strong political bent. It also includes artist interviews, letters, commentary, guest columnists, and extensive sections for independent reviews of punk recordings, demos, books, films, videos, and other zines.
MRR has a large and dedicated all-volunteer staff motivated by a robust DIY ethic. MRR reinforces the values of the punk underground by remaining independent and not-for-profit in contrast to the small number of the major media conglomerates which fund most mainstream artists. Every month, MRR publishes many band interviews freely contributed by fans. In addition, first-hand "scene reports" from across the globe keep the worldwide punk scene connected.
MRR has always had a policy of not giving coverage to, nor accepting advertising from, bands that record on major labels. That policy extends to bands that are "produced and distributed" by a major label. For many years the magazine turned a large profit, but much of that money was reinvested in community projects, most notably the performance space at 924 Gilman Street. Using a mostly volunteer staff, "Gilman" remains one of the world's most important and longest-lasting punk rock clubs. MRR also directly sponsored The Epicenter Zone, a record store and show space in San Francisco, and helps fund numerous other clubs and musical projects around the world.
MRR 1994's Issue #133 was, "Major Labels: Some of Your Friends Are Already This Fucked," which documented the magazine's stance against the corporate undermining of punk. Given the popularity of that issue, a special condensed reprint was offered. Both are now out-of-print. The following individuals contributed: Bobby S. Fred, Steve Albini, Brian Zero, Greg Lane, Craif Koon, Lee Diamond, Kent McClard, Sarah Zimmerman, Larry Livermore, Rev. Norb, Michael Tierney, Eugene Chadbourne, Matt Wobensmith, Mykel Board, Ben Weasel and Tim Yohannan.
Since Yohannan's death in 1998, the magazine has continued to operate on essentially the same economic principles.
Over its years of publishing, MRR has featured a number of prominent writers, musicians, and personalities as columnists, such as Mykel Board, Brian Zero, Jeff Bale, Chris Bickel, Jennifer Blowdryer, Anonymous Boy, Mike Bullshit, Eugene Chadbourne, Felix Havoc, Larry Livermore, Kent McClard, Nick Pell, Jack Rabid, Ben Weasel, Matt Wobensmith, Wells Tipley, George Tabb, Jen Angel, Sam McPheeters, Daniel Stewart, Layla Gibbon, Alexandre Simon and editor Tim Yohannan. Its pages have also served as a springboard for artists and illustrators like Ted Rall and Dan Henk.
The fact that MRR has become so large has not been without controversy: the zine has many critics on a number of issues. Editorial policy has sometimes been accused as narrow-minded or even elitist, causing some labels to boycott advertising in the zine or sending releases for review. The fact that punk is often considered as a movement opposed to authority and large institutions (see punk ideology) has also been an argument used to criticize the zine, which has sometimes been referred to as the "Bible of Punk". This criticism helped spur the creation of Punk Planet and HeartattaCk. HeartattaCk provided extensive coverage of emo bands, which MRR declined to review.
Musicians have also spoken out against the magazine. Jello Biafra claimed the magazine's criticism of him inspired people to assault him at a 1994 performance at 924 Gilman Street, though his assailants were not known to be affiliated with MRR in any way. He also claimed that their narrow definition of punk music amounts to a new form of political correctness. According to Biafra, "If 'Holiday in Cambodia' were released today, it would be banned from Maximum Rock N'Roll for not sounding punk." Jared Swilley, bassist in Atlanta punk band Black Lips, has criticized the magazine saying in an interview with Clash that it is the "most bullshit piece of fuck garbage poor excuse for a magazine ever. They’re like: ‘Oh, we want to keep everything ‘authentic’…’ And I’m like, fuck them! Don’t use a computer, don’t use a car, don’t drink Coca-Cola. Move to a field, grow your own food." The song "MRR" by Fifteen criticizes the zine for petty articles and reviews and being "Big Brother's little brother". Calabasas Nazi punk band Ethnic Cleansing referred to MRR in the intro to their song "The Real Hardcore". An insert containing scans of bad reviews given to their Piles of Dead Jews EP by MRR and Flipside annotated with the words "Thanks for the free publicity, faggot!" was included with early copies of their Hitler Was Right (More Dead Jews) EP.