Nairovirus

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Nairovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Nairovirus
Type species
Dugbe virus
Species

Abu Hammad virus
Abu Mina virus
Bandia virus
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Dera Ghazi Khan virus
Dugbe virus
Erve virus
Farallon virus
Ganjam virus
Hazara virus
Hughes virus
Issyk-Kul virus
Kupe virus
Nairobi sheep disease virus
Punte Salinas virus
Qalyub virus
Raza virus
Sakhalin virus
Thiafora virus
Tillamok virus

Nairovirus is a genus in the family Bunyaviridae that include viruses with circular, negative-sense single stranded RNA. It got its name from the Nairobi sheep disease that affects the gastrointestinal tracts of sheep and goats. Viruses in this genus are tick-borne viruses that can have human or animal hosts.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSD) is the prototype virus of the genus. This virus is found in East and Central Africa and causes acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats. There are 34 viruses currently recognised in this genus. All are tick borne.

Other viruses in this genus include:[1][2]
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)
Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)
Dugbe virus (DUGV)
Hughes virus (HUGV)
Qalyub virus (QYBV)
Sakhalin virus (SAKV)
Thiafora virus (TFAV)

The genus is divided into a number (at least seven) serogroups:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Dera Ghazi Khan
Hughes
Nairobi sheep disease
Qalyub
Sakhalin
Thiafora

Within each serogroup are a number of related viruses:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever serogroup:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Hazara virus

Dera Ghazi Khan serogroup:

Abu Hammad virus
Abu Mina virus

Hughes serogroup:

Farallon virus
Hughes virus
Punte Salinas virus
Raza virus

Nairobi sheep disease serogroup:

Nairobi sheep disease virus
Ganjam virus
Dugbe virus
Kupe virus

Qalyub serogroup:

Bandia virus
Qalyub virus

Sakhalin serogroup:

Sakhalin virus
Tillamok virus

Thiafora serogroup:

Erve virus
Thiafora virus

Genome[edit]

Nairovirus genomes are negative sense, single-stranded RNA. The complete genome is about 17,100–22,800 nucleotides long and is divided into three segments: large, medium, and small.[1] The large segment is about 11000–14400 nucleotides long (11–14.4 kb) and it encodes the viral polymerase.[3][4] The medium segment is about 4,400–6,300 nucleotides long (4.4–6.3 kb) and it encodes for glycoproteins G¬n and Gc.[3][4] The small segment is about 1,700–2,100 nucleotides long (1.7–2.1 kb) and it encodes the nucleocapsid protein.[1][3][4]

The genome has terminally redundant sequences with the sequences being repeated at both ends. The terminal nucleotides are base-paired forming non-covalently closed, circular RNA.[3] Both the 5’ and 3’ end have conserved regions of 9 nucleotides in length. The sequences are 5’end UCUCAAAGA and 3’end AGAGUUUCU.[3]

Virion[edit]

The virions for viruses in this genus have a spherical shape.[4] They range in size from about 80–120 nm in diameter with 50% of their weight attributed to proteins and 20–30% of their weight attributed to lipids.[3] The ribonucleocapsid is filamentous and has a length of about 200-300 nm and a width of about 2–2.5 nm.[3]

These nucleocapsids are surrounded by a single envelope that has projections made of glycoproteins protruding from its surface. These projections evenly cover the surface of the virion and are about 5–10 nm long.[3] They aid in attachment to the host receptor in replication.

Replication[edit]

Nairoviruses attach to the host receptors by their Gn-Gc glycoprotein dimer.[4] The virus is then endocytosed into the host cell via a vesicle. The ribonucleocapsid segments are released into the cytoplasm commencing transcription.[4] Transcription and replication occur in the cell and the newly synthesized virions are released by budding.

Transmission & Distribution[edit]

This virus infects many different vertebrate hosts and is transmitted via insects such as ticks and flies.[3]

There are no geographical localizations of this virus. It is widespread. However, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is localized to Africa, Asia and Europe.[4]

Clinical importance[edit]

Only three viruses in this genus to date have been recognised as human pathogens:

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Dugbe virus
  • Nairobi sheep disease virus.

A fourth—Erve virus—may also be pathogenic for humans.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Crabtree, Mary B., Rosemary Sang, and Barry R. Miller. "Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya." Emerging Infectious Diseases 15 (2009): 147–54.
  2. ^ Clerx, John PM, Jordi Casals, and David HL Bishop. "Structural Characteristics of Nairoviruses (Genus Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae)." Journal of General Virology 55 (1981): 165–78.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Büchen-Osmond, Cornelia. "00.011.0.03. Nairovirus." ICTVdb Virus Descriptions. 25 Apr. 2006. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 17 Apr. 2009 <http://phene.cpmc.columbia.edu/ICTVdB/00.011.0.03.htm>.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Nairovirus." Nairovirus. Viral Zone. <http://www.expasy.ch/viralzone/all_by_species/251.html>.

External links[edit]