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N. alabamensis is medium-sized (15–22 centimetres or 5.9–8.7 inches), with four toes and a laterally compressed tail. Its gills are permanent, bushy, and red. Typical adults exhibit a brown or black dorsum with minimal or no spotting, and the ventral side is white and often not spotted.
The taxonomy of N. alabamensis is poorly understood. It is believed to be related to N. maculosus and N. beyeri. It is known to hybridize with N. beyeri, though electrophoretical evidence suggests they are separate species.
- Petranka, James W. (1998) Salamanders of the United States and Canada, Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.