Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów

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Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów (PWS) - Podlasie Aircraft Works - was the Polish aerospace manufacturer between 1923 and 1939, located in Biała Podlaska.

History[edit]

Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów SA was created in 1923. The first aircraft produced were 35 Potez 15 bombers for the Polish Air Force, under the French licence, built from 1925.[1] By 1929 the works had produced 155 Potez 27 and 150 Potez 25, under French licence, and 50 PWS-A fighters, which was the Czech Avia BH-33 built under licence. It also produced 50 Bartel BM-4 trainers in 1931, designed by Samolot.[1]

In 1925, a deign office was established which included, among others, Stefan Cywiński, Zbysław Ciołkosz, August Bobek-Zdaniewski.[1] Despite a large number of prototypes, few were produced in series. The first aircraft of their own design to be mass-produced was the PWS-10 fighter of 1930 of which 80 examples were built. Smaller production runs of the PWS-14 trainer and the PWS-24 passenger aircraft were also made. The PWS-10 and PWS-24 were the first fighter and the first passenger plane of the Polish construction built in series, respectively. In 1929 the factory built a wind tunnel, the first in Poland. All PWS-designed aircraft had wooden or mixed construction.[1]

In 1932 the PWS works were nationalized to prevent its bankruptcy.[1] It then produced 500 RWD-8 trainers (designed by RWD) and 50 of the British Avro Tutor under licence as the PWS-18 trainers.[1] The factory then designed its own successful PWS-16 and PWS-26 advanced trainers, 320 of the latter built from 1936 to 1939.

In 1936 the factory was subordinated to the PZL national concern. It developed a series of projects for military planes, but they were not built due to outbreak of World War II. The PWS-33 Wyżeł twin-engine advanced trainer and the PWS-35 sports biplane were ordered into production, but these plans were cancelled due to the war.

Lwowskie Warsztaty Lotnicze (LWL, Lwów Aviation Workshops) was formed in October 1937 as a division of PWS. It built gliders, among others designated with letters PWS. Some 160 gliders were before the war.[2]

After the outbreak of World War II, the PWS factory was bombed by the Germans on September 4, 1939, who destroyed about 70% of the factory. The remains of equipment were captured by the Soviets after their invasion of Poland.

List of aircraft[edit]

Name Type Production Configuration Year first flight
PWS-A (licenced Avia BH-33) fighter series 1-engine, 1-seat biplane 1929
PWS-1 heavy fighter prototype 1-engine, 2-seat high-wing monoplane 1927
PWS-3 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat high-wing monoplane 1927
PWS-4 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 1-seat low-wing monoplane 1928
PWS-5 army cooperation short series 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1928
PWS-6 liaison prototype 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1930
PWS-8 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1929
PWS-10 fighter series 1-engine, 1-seat high-wing monoplane 1930
PWS-11 fighter trainer prototype 1-engine, 1-seat high-wing monoplane 1929
PWS-12 trainer prototype 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1929
PWS-14 trainer series 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1931
PWS-16 trainer series 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1933
PWS-18 (licenced Avro 621) trainer series 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1935
PWS-19 reconnaissance-bomber prototype 1-engine, 2-seat high-wing monoplane 1931
PWS-20 airliner prototype 1-engine, 8-seat high-wing monoplane 1929
PWS-21bis airliner prototype 1-engine, 6-seat high-wing monoplane 1930
PWS-24 airliner short series 1-engine, 6-seat high-wing monoplane 1931
PWS-26 trainer series 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1935
PWS-33 Wyżeł trainer prototype, series ordered 2-engine, 2-seat low-wing monoplane 1938
PWS-35 sportsplane prototype, series ordered 1-engine, 2-seat biplane 1938
PWS-40 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat low-wing monoplane 1939
PWS-50 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat mid-wing monoplane 1930
PWS-51 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat low-wing monoplane 1930
PWS-52 sportsplane prototype 1-engine, 2-seat high-wing monoplane 1930
PWS-54 airliner prototype 1-engine, 4-seat high-wing monoplane 1933
PWS-101 glider short series 1-seat gull-wing monoplane 1937
PWS-102 Rekin glider short series 1-seat gull-wing monoplane 1939
PWS-103 glider prototypes completed by the Soviets 1-seat gull-wing monoplane 1940

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Glass, A. (1977), p.22-25
  2. ^ Glass, A. (1977), p.39-40
  • (Polish) Glass, Andrzej. Polskie konstrukcje lotnicze 1893-1939 [Polish aviation designs 1893-1939]. Warsaw: WKiŁ, 1977 (no ISBN)