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Pébrine is a disease of silkworms, which is caused by microsporidian parasites, mainly Nosema bombycis and to a lesser extent Variomorpha, Pleistophora and Thelophania species.

The silkworm larvae infected by pébrine are usually covered in brown dots and are unable to spin silkworm thread. Louis Pasteur was the first one to recognize the cause of this disease when a plague of the disease spread across France.

Nosema bombycis is a microsporidium that kills all of the silkworms hatched from infected eggs and comes from the food that silkworms eat. If silkworms get this microsporidium in their larval stage, there are no visible symptoms; however, mother moths will pass the microsporidium onto the eggs, and all of the worms hatching from the infected eggs will die in their larva stage. Therefore, it is extremely important to rule out all eggs from infected moths by checking the moth’s body fluid under a microscope.