Athanasius of Alexandria
||This article has an unclear citation style. (April 2012)|
|Saint Athanasius of Alexandria|
Icon of St Athanasius
|Pope of Alexandria; Confessor and Doctor of the Church|
|Died||2 May 373
|Roman Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Anglican Communion, and among the Continuing Anglican Movement|
|Major shrine||Saint Mark Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Cairo, Egypt|
|Feast||15 May = 7 Pashons, 89 A.M. (Coptic Orthodox)
2 May (Western Christianity)
18 January (Eastern Orthodox Church)
|Attributes||Bishop arguing with a pagan; bishop holding an open book; bishop standing over a defeated heretic|
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Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας, Athanásios Alexandrías; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the twentieth bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I). His episcopate (because of the importance of the see, considered an archbishopric by Rome, the Coptic papacy, or an Orthodox patriarchate) lasted 45 years (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373), of which over 17 were spent in five exiles ordered by four different Roman emperors. Athanasius is a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
Conflict with Arius and Arianism as well as successive Roman emperors shaped Athanasius' career. In 325, at the age of 27, Athanasius began his leading role against the Arians as his bishop's assistant during the First Council of Nicaea. Roman emperor Constantine the Great had convened the council in May–August 325 to address the Arian position that the Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth, is of a distinct substance from the Father. Three years after Nicæa, Athanasius succeeded his mentor as archbishop of Alexandria. In addition to the conflict with the Arians (including powerful and influential Arian churchmen led by Eusebius of Nicomedia), he struggled against the Emperors Constantine, Constantius II, Julian the Apostate and Valens. He was known as "Athanasius Contra Mundum".
Nonetheless, within a few years of his departure, St. Gregory of Nazianzus called him the "Pillar of the Church". His writings were well regarded by all Church fathers who followed, in both the West and the East, who noted their rich devotion the Word-become-man, great pastoral concern, and profound interest in monasticism. Athanasius is counted as one of the four great Eastern Doctors of the Church in the Roman Catholic Church. In Eastern Orthodoxy, he is labeled the "Father of Orthodoxy". Some Protestants label him "Father of The Canon". Athanasius is venerated as a Christian saint, whose feast day is 2 May in Western Christianity, 15 May in the Coptic Orthodox Church, and 18 January in the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. He is venerated by the Roman Catholic Church, Oriental and Eastern Orthodox churches, the Lutherans, and the Anglican Communion.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Works
- 3 Veneration
- 4 Historical significance and controversies
- 5 Character
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Translations
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Athanasius came from a Christian family, as in his writings he tells more than once of an aunt who taught him some principles of the Christian faith, and a father who did the same, as well as mentioning (once) his mother doing the same. His parents were wealthy enough to afford giving him an esteemed secular education, as described below. He had a Christian brother, and later in his life, during one of his many exiles, hid in his father's tomb in a Christian cemetery. ["It was during this period, the final exile, that he is said to have spent four months in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xii; Soc., "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xii)"].
National origin controversy
Athanasius was an Egyptian born in the city of Alexandria or possibly the nearby Nile Delta town of Damanhur around 293–298 (see birth year controversy below). Some Western scholars consider his command of Greek, in which he wrote most of his surviving works, evidence that he was a Greek born in Alexandria. However, in Coptic literature, Athanasius is the first patriarch of Alexandria to use Coptic as well as Greek in his writings. That Athanasius assumed the Episcopal see of Alexandria at a time of increased local discord against Rome and become a noted Egyptian leader lends additional support to his Egyptian ancestry.
However, Mother Frances Alice Monica Forbes gives witness in her historical account; Saint Athanasius, that when the Patriarch Alexander was about to die on his death-bed called Athanasius, who fled fearing he would be constrained to be made Bishop. "When the Bishops of the Church assembled to elect their new Patriarch, the whole Catholic population surrounded the church, holding up their hands to Heaven and crying; "Give us Athanasius!" The Bishops had nothing better. Athanasius was thus elected, as St. Gregory tells,....." 
Alexandria was the most important trade center in the whole empire during Athanasius' boyhood. Intellectually, morally, and politically—it epitomized the ethnically diverse Graeco-Roman world, even more than Rome or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles. Its famous catechetical school, while sacrificing none of its famous passion for orthodoxy since the days of Pantaenus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Dionysius and Theognostus, had begun to take on an almost secular character in the comprehensiveness of its interests, and had counted influential pagans among its serious auditors.
Athanasius recounts being a student, as well as being educated by the Martyrs of the Great (tenth) and last persecution of Christianity by pagan Rome. This persecution was most severe in the East, particularly in Egypt and Palestine. Peter of Alexandria, the 17th archbishop of Alexandria, was martyred in 311 in the closing days of that persecution, and may have been one of those teachers. His successor as bishop of Alexandria, Alexander of Alexandria (312–328) was an Origenist as well as a documented mentor of Athanasius. According to Sozomen, Bishop Alexander "invited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary. He had been well educated, and was versed in grammar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young man, and before reaching the episcopate, given proof to those who dwelt with him of his wisdom and acumen". Athanasius' earliest work,Against the Heathen – On the Incarnation(written before 319), bears traces of Origenist Alexandrian thought (such as repeatedly quoting Plato and used a definition from Aristotle's Organon) but in an orthodox way. Athanasius was also familiar with the theories of various philosophical schools, and in particular with the developments of Neo-Platonism. Ultimately, Athanasius would modify the philosophical thought of the School of Alexandria away from the Origenist principles such as the "entirely allegorical interpretation of the text". Still, in later works, Athanasius quotes Homer more than once (Hist. Ar. 68, Orat. iv. 29). In his letter to Emperor Constantius, he presents a defense of himself bearing unmistakable traces of a study of Demosthenes de Corona.
Athanasius knew Greek and admitted not knowing Hebrew [see, e.g., the 39th Festal Letter of St. Athan.]. The Old Testament passages he quotes frequently come from the Septuagint Greek translation. Only rarely did he use other Greek versions (to Aquila once in the Ecthesis, to other versions once or twice on the Psalms), and his knowledge of the Old Testament was limited to the Septuagint. Nonetheless, during his later exile, with no access to a copy of the Scriptures, Athanasius could quote from memory every verse in the Old Testament with a supposed reference to the Trinity without missing any. The combination of Scriptural study and of Greek learning was characteristic of the famous Alexandrian School.
Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, xiv), relates how Bishop Alexander had invited fellow prelates for breakfast after a great religious function. As he waited for his guests by a window, he watched boys playing on the seashore below. He soon noticed that they were imitating the elaborate ritual of Christian baptism. He sent for the children and discovered that one of the boys (Athanasius) had acted as bishop. The real bishop (Alexander) determined to recognize the make-believe baptisms as genuine, and invited Athanasius and his playfellows to prepare for clerical careers.
Bishop (or Patriarch) Alexander ordained Athanasius a deacon in 319. In 325, Athanasius served as Alexander's secretary at the First Council of Nicaea. Already a recognized theologian and ascetic, he was the obvious choice to replace his aging mentor Alexander as the Patriarch of Alexandria, despite the opposition of the followers of Arius and Meletius of Lycopolis.
While still a deacon under Alexander's care (or early in his patriarchate as discussed below) Athanasius may have also become acquainted with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian desert, and in particular Anthony the Great, whose life he is said to have written.
Athanasius' episcopate began on 9 May 328 as the Alexandrian Council, elected Athanasius to succeed the aged Alexander. That council also denounced various heresies and schisms, many of which continued to preoccupy his 45-year long episcopate (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373). Patriarch Athanasius spent over 17 years in five exiles ordered by four different Roman Emperors, not counting approximately six more incidents in which Athanasius fled Alexandria to escape people seeking to take his life. This gave rise to the expression "Athanasius contra mundum" or "Athanasius against the world". However, during his first years as bishop, Athanasius visited the churches of his territory, which at that time included all of Egypt and Libya. He established contacts with the hermits and monks of the desert, including Pachomius, which proved very valuable to him over the years. Shortly thereafter, Athanasius became occupied with the disputes with the Byzantine Empire and Arians which would occupy much of his life.
First exile: under Emperor Constantine, for 2.5 years [11 Jul 335 – 22 Nov 337]; in Trier (Germany).
Athanasius' first problem lay with Meletius of Lycopolis and his followers, who had failed to abide by the First Council of Nicaea. That council also anathematized Arius. Accused of mistreating Arians and Meletians, Athanasius answered those charges at a gathering of bishops in Tyre, the First Synod of Tyre, in 335. There, Eusebius of Nicomedia and other supporters of Arius deposed Athanasius. On 6 November, both sides of the dispute met with Emperor Constantine I in Constantinople. At that meeting, Athanasius was found guilty of threatening to interfere with the supply of grains from Egypt, and sent into exile at Trier in the Rhineland.
Second exile: under Emperor Constantius, for 7.5 years [16 Apr 339 – 21 Oct 346]; lived at Rome.
When Emperor Constantine I died, Athanasius was allowed to return to his See of Alexandria. Shortly thereafter, however, Constantine's son, the new Roman Emperor Constantius II, renewed the order for Athanasius' banishment in 338. Athanasius went to Rome, where he was under the protection of Constans, the Emperor of the West. During this time, Gregory of Cappadocia was installed as the Patriarch of Alexandria, usurping the absent Athanasius. Athanasius did, however, remain in contact with his people through his annual Festal Letters, in which he also announced on which date Easter would be celebrated that year.
Moreover, in 340, one hundred bishops met at Alexandria, declared in favor of Athanasius, and vigorously rejected the criticisms of the Eusebian faction at Tyre. Plus, Pope Julius I wrote to the supporters of Arius strongly urging Athanasius's reinstatement, but that effort proved in vain. Pope Julius II called a synod in Rome in 341 to address the matter, which found Athanasius was found to be innocent of all the charges raised against him.
"Early in the year 343 we find the undaunted exile in Gaul, whither he had gone to consult the saintly Hosius, the great champion of orthodoxy in the West. The two together set out for the Council of Sardica which had been summoned in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes. At this great gathering of prelates the case of Athanasius was taken up once more; and once more was his innocence reaffirmed. Two conciliar letters were prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, the other to the bishops of Egypt and Lybia, in which the will of the Council was made known. Meanwhile the Eusebian party had gone to Philippopolis / Shahba , where they issued an anathema against Athanasius and his supporters. The persecution against the orthodox party broke out with renewed vigour, and Constantius II was induced to prepare drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests who were devoted to him. Orders were given that if the Saint attempt to re-enter his episcopal see, he should be put to death. Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew from Sardica to Naissus in Mysia , where he celebrated the Easter festival of the year 344." 
It was the Saintly Hosius, who was in the Chair at the Council of Sardica obviously positioned there by the Roman Pontiff's wishes. Even in the page; Hosius, we read: "Hosius presided in 343 at the fruitless synod of Sardica, which showed itself so hostile to Arianism; there and afterwards he spoke and wrote in favour of Athanasius...". It does not appear to be a "fruitless synod", for it was key in asserting the innocence of Athanasius, the "raison d'être" of the Council namely to put Athanasius "on trial".
In 346, when the hated replacement bishop Gregory died, Constans used his influence to allow Athanasius to return to Alexandria. Most Egyptians had come to view Athanasius as a national hero, and welcomed him. This began a "golden decade" of peace and prosperity, during which time Athanasius assembled several documents relating to his exiles and returns from exile in the Apology Against the Arians. However, upon Constans' death in 350, another civil war broke out, which left pro-Arian Constantius as sole emperor. An Alexandria local council in 350 replaced (or reaffirmed) Athanasius in his see.
Third exile: under Emperor Constantius, for 6 years [9 Feb 356 – 21 Feb 362]; in the Egyptian desert.
Constantius, renewing his previous policies favoring the Arians, banished Athanasius from Alexandria once again. This was followed, in 356, by an attempt to arrest Athanasius during a vigil service. Athanasius fled to Upper Egypt, where he stayed in several monasteries and other houses. During this period, Athanasius completed his work Four Orations against the Arians and defended his own recent conduct in the Apology to Constantius and Apology for His Flight. Constantius' persistence in his opposition to Athanasius, combined with reports Athanasius received about the persecution of non-Arians by the new Arian bishop George of Laodicea, prompted Athanasius to write his more emotional History of the Arians, in which he described Constantius as a precursor of the Antichrist.
In 361, after the death of Emperor Constantius, shortly followed by the murder of the very unpopular Bishop George, Athanasius returned to his patriarchate. The following year he convened a council at Alexandria, and presided over it with Eusebius of Vercelli. Athanasius appealed for unity among all those who had faith in Christianity, even if they differed on matters of terminology. This prepared the groundwork for his definition of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. However, the council also was directed against those who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit, the human soul of Christ, and Christ's divinity. Mild measures were agreed on for those heretic bishops who repented, but severe penance was decreed for the chief leaders of the major heresies.
Fourth exile: under Apostate Emperor Julian, 10 months [24 Oct 362 – 5 Sept 363]; in the Egyptian desert.
In 362, the new Emperor Julian, noted for his opposition to Christianity, ordered Athanasius to leave Alexandria once again. Athanasius left for Upper Egypt, remaining there with the Desert Fathers until Julian's death in 363.
Fifth exile: under Emperor Valens, 4 months [5 Oct 365 – 31 Jan 366]; in his father's tomb.
Two years later, the Emperor Valens, who favored the Arian position, in his turn exiled Athanasius. This time however, Athanasius simply left for the outskirts of Alexandria, where he stayed for only a few months before the local authorities convinced Valens to retract his order of exile. Some early reports state that Athanasius spent this period of exile in his family's ancestral tomb. He hid in his father's tomb in a Christian cemetery. ["It was during this period, the final exile, that he is said to have spent four months in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xii; Soc., "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xii)"].
Final years and death: [1 Feb 366 – 2 May 373] After returning to Alexandria in early 366, Athanasius spent his final years repairing all the damage done during the earlier years of violence, dissent, and exile. He resumed writing and preaching undisturbed, and characteristically re-emphasized the view of the Incarnation which had been defined at Nicaea.. On 2 May 373, having consecrated Peter II, one of his presbyters as his successor, Athanasius died quietly in his own bed, surrounded by his clergy and faithful supporters.
Polemical and theological works
Athanasius was not a speculative theologian. As he stated in his First Letters to Serapion, he held on to "the tradition, teaching, and faith proclaimed by the apostles and guarded by the fathers." He held that not only was the Son of God consubstantial with the Father, but so was the Holy Spirit, which had a great deal of influence in the development of later doctrines regarding the Trinity.
Athanasius' "Letter Concerning the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea" (De Decretis), is an important historical as well as theological account of the proceedings of that council, and another letter from 367 is the first known listing of the New Testament including all those books now accepted everywhere as the New Testament. (earlier similar lists vary by the omission or addition of a few books, see Development of the New Testament canon).
Examples of Athanasius' polemical writings against his theological opponents include Orations Against the Arians, his defence of the divinity of the Holy Spirit (Letters to Serapion in the 360s, and On the Holy Spirit) against Macedonianism and On the Incarnation.
Athanasius also wrote a two-part Against the Heathen and The Incarnation of the Word of God. Completed probably early in his life, before the Arian controversy, they constitute the first classic work of developed Orthodox theology. In the first part, Athanasius attacks several pagan practices and beliefs. The second part presents teachings on the redemption. Also in these books, Athanasius put forward the belief that the Son of God, the eternal Word through whom God created the world, entered that world in human form to lead men back into the harmony from which they had earlier fallen away.
His other important works include his Letters to Serapion, which dealt with the divinity of the Holy Spirit. In a letter to Epictetus of Corinth, Athanasius anticipates future controversies in his defense of the humanity of Christ. Another of his letters, to Dracontius, urges that monk to leave the desert for the more active duties of a bishop.
Athanasius also wrote several works of Biblical exegesis, primarily of volumes in the Old Testament. Excerpts remain of his discussions concerning the Book of Genesis, the Song of Solomon, and Psalms.
Biographical and ascetic
His biography of Anthony the Great entitled Life of Antony (Βίος καὶ Πολιτεία Πατρὸς Ἀντωνίου, Vita Antonii) became his most widely read work. Translated into several languages, it played an important role in the spreading of the ascetic ideal in Eastern and Western Christianity. Depicting Anthony as an illiterate and holy man who through his existence in a primordial landscape has an absolute connection to the divine truth, the biography also resembles the life of his biographer Athanasius. It later served as an inspiration to Christian monastics in both the East and the West. The so-called Athanasian Creed dates from well after Athanasius's death and draws upon the phraseology of Augustine's De trinitate.
Athanasius' works on ascetism also include a Discourse on Virginity, a short work on Love and Self-Control, and a treatise On Sickness and Health (of which only fragments remain).
There are several other works ascribed to him, although not necessarily generally accepted as being his own work. These include the Athanasian creed, which is today generally seen as being of 5th-century Galician origin.
Quotes from St Athanasius
"Jesus that I know as my Redeemer cannot be less than God" ~at the Council of Nicæa (c. 325)
"Both from the confession of the evil spirits and from the daily witness of His works, it is manifest, then, and let none presume to doubt it, that the Savior has raised His own body, and that He is very Son of God, having His being from God as from a Father, Whose Word and Wisdom and Whose Power He is. He it is Who in these latter days assumed a body for the salvation of us all, and taught the world concerning the Father. He it is Who has destroyed death and freely graced us all with incorruption through the promise of the resurrection, having raised His own body as its first-fruits, and displayed it by the sign of the cross as the monument to His victory over death and its corruption". – The Incarnation of the Word, Chapter 5, The Resurrection (5:32)
"But for the searching and right understanding of the Scriptures there is need of a good life and a pure soul, and for Christian virtue to guide the mind to grasp, so far as human nature can, the truth concerning God the Word. One cannot possibly understand the teaching of the saints unless one has a pure mind and is trying to imitate their life. Anyone who wants to look at sunlight naturally wipes his eye clear first, in order to make, at any rate, some approximation to the purity of that on which he looks; and a person wishing to see a city or country goes to the place in order to do so. Similarly, anyone who wishes to understand the mind of the sacred writers must first cleanse his own life, and approach the saints by copying their deeds. Thus united to them in the fellowship of life, he will both understand the things revealed to them by God and, thenceforth escaping the peril that threatens sinners in the judgment, will receive that which is laid up for the saints in the kingdom of heaven." ~in his conclusion to The Incarnation of the Word, Chapter 9, (9:57)
"These are fountains of salvation that they who thirst may be satisfied with the living words they contain. In these alone is proclaimed the doctrine of godliness. Let no man add to these, neither let him take out from these. For concerning these, the Lord put to shame the Sadducees, and said, 'Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures' and He reproved the Jews, saying, 'Search the Scriptures, for these are they that testify of ME". ~describing the canon in his 39th Festal Letter (c.367)
"He became what we are, so that He might make us what He is...." [The Incarnation of The Word, St. Athanasius, Section 54]
"May God console you! ... What saddens you ... is the fact that others have occupied the churches by violence, while during this time you are on the outside. It is a fact that they have the premises – but you have the Apostolic Faith. They can occupy our churches, but they are outside the true Faith. You remain outside the places of worship, but the Faith dwells within you. Let us consider: what is more important, the place or the Faith? The true Faith, obviously. Who has lost and who has won in the struggle – the one who keeps the premises or the one who keeps the Faith? True, the premises are good when the Apostolic Faith is preached there; they are holy if everything takes place there in a holy way ... You are the ones who are happy; you who remain within the Church by your Faith, who hold firmly to the foundations of the Faith which has come down to you from Apostolic Tradition. And if an execrable jealousy has tried to shake it on a number of occasions, it has not succeeded. They are the ones who have broken away from it in the present crisis. No one, ever, will prevail against your Faith, beloved Brothers. And we believe that God will give us our churches back some day. Thus, the more violently they try to occupy the places of worship, the more they separate themselves from the Church. They claim that they represent the Church; but in reality, they are the ones who are expelling themselves from it and going astray. Even if Catholics faithful to Tradition are reduced to a handful, they are the ones who are the true Church of Jesus Christ." [Orations, Letters of St. Athanasius to his flock.... Festal Letters... CO. May 2014].
St Athanasius was originally buried in Alexandria, Egypt, but his remains were later transferred to the Chiesa di San Zaccaria in Venice, Italy. During Pope Shenouda III's visit to Rome from 4 to 10 May 1973, Pope Paul VI gave the Coptic Patriarch a relic of Athanasius, which he brought back to Egypt on 15 May. The relic is currently preserved under the new Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Cairo, Egypt. However, the majority of St Athanasius's corpse remains in the Venetian church.
All major Christian denominations which officially recognize saints venerate Athanasius. Western Christians observe his feast day on 2 May, the anniversary of his death. The Roman Catholic Church considers Athanasius a Doctor of the Church. For Coptic Christians, his feast day is Pashons 7 (now circa 15 May). Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendars remember St Athanasius on 18 January.
St. Gregory of Nazianzus (330–390, also a Doctor of the Church), said in Or.21: "When I praise Athanasius, virtue itself is my theme: for I name every virtue as often as I mention him who was possessed of all virtues. He was the true pillar of the Church. His life and conduct were the rule of bishops, and his doctrine the rule of the orthodox faith."
Some Eastern Orthodox churches use the following troparion (hymn) to St Athanasius:
- O Holy father Athanasius,
- like a pillar of orthodoxy
- you refuted the heretical nonsense of Arius
- by insisting that the Father and the Son are equal in essence.
- O venerable father, beg Christ our God to save our souls.
Historical significance and controversies
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Opposition to Arianism
In about 319, when Athanasius was a deacon, a presbyter named Arius came into a direct conflict with Alexander of Alexandria. It appears that Arius reproached Alexander for what he felt were misguided or heretical teachings being taught by the bishop. Arius’ theological views appear to have been firmly rooted in Alexandrian Christianity, and his Christological views were certainly not radical at all. He embraced a subordinationist Christology (that Christ was the divine Son( Logos ) of God made not begotten ), heavily influenced by Alexandrian thinkers like Origen, which was a common Christological view in Alexandria at the time. Support for Arius from powerful bishops like Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, further illustrate how Arius' subordinationist Christology was shared by other Christians in the Empire. Arius was subsequently excommunicated by Alexander, and he would begin to elicit the support of many bishops who agreed with his position.
New Testament canon
St Athanasius is also the first person to identify the same 27 books of the New Testament that are in use today. Up until then, various similar lists of works to be read in churches were in use. A milestone in the evolution of the canon of New Testament books is his Easter letter from Alexandria, written in 367, usually referred to as his 39th Festal Letter. Pope Damasus I, the Bishop of Rome in 382, promulgated a list of books which contained a New Testament canon identical to that of Athanasius. A synod in Hippo in 393 repeated Athanasius' and Damasus' New Testament list (without the Epistle to the Hebrews), and a synod in Carthage in 397 repeated Athanasius' and Damasus' complete New Testament list.
Scholars debate whether Athanasius' list in 367 was the basis for the later lists. Because Athanasius' canon is the closest canon of any of the Church Fathers to the canon used by Protestant churches today, many Protestants point to Athanasius as the father of the canon. They are identical except that Athanasius includes the Book of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah and places the Book of Esther among the "7 books not in the canon but to be read" along with the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Judith, Tobit, the Didache, and the Shepherd of Hermas. See the article, Biblical canon, for more details.
Birth year controversy
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Estimates of Athanasius' birth year vary from 293 to 296–298. The earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned and apparently supported by the authority of a "Coptic Fragment" (published by Dr. O. von Lemm among the Mémoires de l'académie impériale des sciences de S. Péterbourg, 1888) and corroborated by the maturity revealed in his two earliest treatises Contra Gentes (Against the Heathens) and De Incarnatione (On the Incarnation), which were admittedly written about the year 318 before Arianism had begun to make itself felt, as those writings do not show an awareness of Arianism. [directly from "Athanasius", Catholic Encyclopedia, Cornelius Clifford, 1907.]
The Catholic Encyclopedia, however, states he was born around 296 and no later than 298. The argument for the later dates begins with analysis of the original collector of Athanasius' famed Festal Epistles (collected shortly after his death). That author stated that the Arians had accused St. Athanasius, among other charges, that he had not yet attained the canonical age (30) and thus could not be properly ordination as Patriarch of Alexandria in 328. Without retrying those disregarded accusations, Athanasius must have at least appeared close enough to 30 years old in 328 for the accusation to seem plausible. Furthermore, in two distinct passages (Hist. Ar., lxiv, and De Syn., xviii), Athanasius does not recall from memory being a first hand witness to the onset of the great persecution by the Tetrarchy of Diocletian and Maximian in February 303. In referring to those events, he never mentions personal recollections, but falls back on tradition. This tends to indicate youth (age younger than 10) in 303. Finally, his parents were still alive in Alexandria in 358, which would also place the date of his birth later rather than earlier.
Athanasius has always been a controversial, if not divisive, figure. While some scholars praise him as an orthodox saint with great character, others see him as a power-hungry politician who employed questionable ecclesiastical tactics.
The Historian, Cornelius Clifford, says; "His career almost personifies a crisis in the history of Christianity; and he maybe said rather to have shaped the events in which he took part than to have been shaped by them." 
The greater majority of Church leaders and the Emperors fell into support for Arianism, so much so that Saint Jerome wrote of the period; "The whole world groaned and was amazed to find itself Arian". He even suffered an unjust excommunication from Pope Liberius (325-366) who was Arian or leaning towards the Arians. Athanasius stood virtually alone against the world.
Supporters of Athanasius
Many Christian denominations revere Athanasius as a Saint, teacher, and father. They cite his defense of the Christology described in the first chapter of the Gospel of John[1:1–4] and his significant theological works (C.S. Lewis calls On the Incarnation of the Word of God a "masterpiece") as evidence of his righteousness. They also emphasize his close relationship with St Anthony, who is almost universally revered throughout Christendom.
The Gospel of St. John and prticularly the first Chapter demonstrates the Divinity of Jesus. This Gospel in itself is the greatest support of St Athanasius' stand. The Gospel of St John's first Chapter began to be said at the end of Mass, we believe as a result of Athanasius, and his life's stand, but quietly. The Last Gospel of The Mass, The Eucharist, St John[1:1–14], together with the prayer; "Placeat tibi", the Blessing, are all private devotions that have been gradually absorbed by the liturgical service. The beginning of St John's Gospel was much used as an object of special devotion throughout the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, the practice of saying it at the altar grew; eventually St. Pius V made this practice universal for the Roman Rite in his edition of the Missal. (1570). It became a firm custom with exceptions in using an other Gospel in use from 1920. So the Missals showed different last Gospel for certain Feast days. A Prayer Card for the St John's Gospel. Also: 
St Gregory Nazianzen, 330–390, begins Or. 21 with: "When I praise Athanasius, virtue itself is my theme: for I name every virtue as often as I mention him who was possessed of all virtues. He was the true pillar of the church. His life and conduct were the rule of bishops, and his doctrine the rule of the orthodox faith."
St Cyril of Alexandria, 370–444, In the first letter says: "Athanasius is one who can be trusted: he would not say anything that is not in accord with sacred scripture." (Ep 1).
Many modern historians point out that such a hostile attitude towards Athanasius is based on an unfair judgment of historical sources.
The Historian, Cornelius Clifford, said in his account: "Athanasius was the greatest champion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incarnation that the Church has ever known and in his lifetime earned the characteristic title of "Father of Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished ever since." 
Ven. John Henry Newman described him as a "principal instrument, after the Apostles, by which the sacred truths of Christianity have been conveyed and secured to the world". [Letters..]
Critics of Athanasius
Throughout most of his career, Athanasius had many detractors. Classical scholar Timothy Barnes relates contemporary allegations against Athanasius: from defiling an altar, to selling Church grain that had been meant to feed the poor for his own personal gain, and even violence and murder to suppress dissent. Athanasius used "Arian" to describe both followers of Arius, and as a derogatory polemical term for followers of ideas that he deemed as bad as Arius'. Athanasius called many of his opponents "Arian", except for Miletus.
Scholars now believe that the Arian Party was not monolithic, but held drastically different theological views that spanned the early Christian theological spectrum. They supported the tenets of Origenist thought and theology, but had little else in common. Moreover, many labelled "Arian" did not consider themselves followers of Arius. However, others point to the Council of Nicaea as proof in and of itself that Arianism was a real theological ideology.
Lawyer Richard E. Rubenstein suggests that Athanasius ascended to the rank of bishop in Alexandria under questionable circumstances because some questioned whether he had reached the minimum age of 30 years old, and further that Athanasius employed force when it suited his cause or personal interests. Thus, he argues that a small number of bishops who supported Athanasius held a private consecration to make him bishop.
- Apostles' Creed
- Athanasian Creed
- Eastern Catholic Church
- First Council of Nicaea
- Nicene Creed
- Orthodox Church
- Shield of the Trinity
- St. Athanasius' Church (disambiguation), various churches named after Athanasius
- Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972.
- "Doctors of the Church". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Clifford, Cornelius, Catholic Encyclopedia 1907, Volume 2, Pgs: 35–40 "Athanasius".
- "Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- F. A. Forbes; "Saint Athanasius", 1930
- Clifford, Cornelius, Catholic Encyclopedia 1930, Volume 2, Pgs: 35–40 "Athanasius".
- Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VI, xix
- Soz., II, xvii
- ᾽Αλεξανδρεὺς τῷ γένει, ἀνὴρ λόγιος, δυνατὸς ὢν ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς
- Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 2 Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1997. ISBN 0-7172-0129-5.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 0-85229-633-9
- Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993), 23
- "Councils of Alexandria". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Justo L. Gonzalez in A History of Christian Thought notes (p292) that E. Schwartz places this work later, around 335, but "his arguments have not been generally accepted". The introduction to the CSMV translation of On the Incarnation places the work in 318, around the time Athanasius was ordained to the diaconate (St Athanasius On the Incarnation, Mowbray, England 1953)
- Dag Øistein Endsjø Primordial landscapes, incorruptible bodies. Desert asceticism and the Christian appropriation of Greek ideas on geography, bodies, and immortality. New York: Peter Lang 2008.
- Weigel, George (2001). The Truth of Catholicism. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 9. ISBN 0-06-621330-4.
- Later echoed by Thomas Aquinas
- Later echoed by Witness Lee
- "Metropolitan Bishoy of Damiette". Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- "Saint Athanasius". Avarewase.org. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- "Chiesa di San Zaccaria Tour". Museumplanet.com.[dead link]
- "The Incorrupt Relics of Saint Athanasios the Great". Johnsanidopoulos.com. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Kannengiesser, Charles, “Alexander and Arius of Alexandria: The last Ante-Nicene theologians”, Miscelanea En Homenaje Al P. Antonio Orbe Compostellanum Vol. XXXV, no. 1-2. (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 398
- Williams, Rowan, Arius: Heresy and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987),175
- Williams, 175
- Williams 154–155
- Arius letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia
- Alexander of Alexandria's Catholic Epistle
- Hahn, Paul Prof., "Development of the Biblical Canon"
- "Excerpt from Letter 39". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Introduction to St. Athanasius on the Incarnation. Translated and edited by Sister Penelope Lawson, published by Mowbray 1944. p.9
- Fortescue, Adrian, Catholic Encyclopedia 1907, Volume 6, Pgs: 662-663 "Gospel"
- Pope Benedict XV, Missale Romanum, IX Additions & Variations of the Rubrics of The Missal
- Jungmann, El Sacrificio de la Misa, No. 659, 660
- Arnold, 24–99; Ng, 273–292.
- Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993),37
- Barnes "Athanasius and Constantius",14, 128
- Barnes "Athanasius and Constantius",135
- Haas, Christopher, “The Arians of Alexandria”, Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 47, no. 3 (1993), 239
- Chadwick, Henry, “Faith and Order at the Council of Nicaea”, Harvard Theological Review LIII (Cambridge Mass: 1960),173
- Williams, 63
- Kannengiesser "Alexander and Arius", 403
- Kannengiesser, “Athanasius of Alexandria vs. Arius: The Alexandrian Crisis”, in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity (Studies in Antiquity and Christianity), ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (1986),208
- Williams, 82
- Rubenstein, Richard E., When Jesus Became God: The Epic Fight over Christ’s Divinity in the Last Days of Rome (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999), 105–106
- Anatolios, Khaled 2004. Athanasius. London: Routledge. [Contains selections from the Orations against the Arians (pp. 87–175) and Letters to Serapion on the Holy Spirit (pp. 212–33), together with the full texts of On the Council of Nicaea (pp. 176–211) and Letter 40: To Adelphius (pp. 234–42)]
- Schaff, Philip (1867). History of the Christian Church: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity, AD 311–600 3rd. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
- Schaff, Philip; Henry Wace (1903). A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: St. Athanasius: Select Works and Letters 4th. New York: Scribner.
- Thompson, Robert W, 1971. Athanasius. Contra Gentes-De Incarnatione, text and ET, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- On the Incarnation by Athanasius of Alexandria, on theologynetwork.org
- Letters to Serapion (on the Holy Spirit) at archive.org
- Alexander of Alexandria "Catholic Epistle", The Ecole Initiative, ecole.evansville.edu
- Arnold, Duane W.-H., The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria (1991)
- Arius, “Arius’ letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia”, Ecclesiastical History, ed. Theodoret. Ser. 2, Vol. 3, 41, The Ecole Initiative, ecole.evansville.edu
- Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. (New York: Penguin, 1993). ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
- Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993).
- Barnes, Timothy D., Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981)
- Bouter, P.F. (2010). Athanasius (in Dutch). Kampen: Kok.
- Brakke, David. Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism (1995)
- Clifford, Cornelius, "Athanasius", Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 2 (1907), 35–40
- Chadwick, Henry, “Faith and Order at the Council of Nicaea”, Harvard Theological Review LIII (Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 1960), 171–195.
- Endsjø, Dag Øistein. Primordial landscapes, incorruptible bodies. Desert asceticism and the Christian appropriation of Greek ideas on geography, bodies, and immortality. (New York: Peter Lang, 2008)
- Ernest, James D., The Bible in Athanasius of Alexandria (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
- Haas, Christopher. “The Arians of Alexandria”, Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 47, no. 3 (1993), 234–245.
- Hanson, R.P.C., The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318–381 (T.&T. Clark 1988)
- Kannengiesser, Charles, “Alexander and Arius of Alexandria: The last Ante-Nicene theologians”, Miscelanea En Homenaje Al P. Antonio Orbe Compostellanum Vol. XXXV, no. 1-2. (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 391–403.
- Kannengiesser, Charles “Athanasius of Alexandria vs. Arius: The Alexandrian Crisis”, in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity (Studies in Antiquity and Christianity), ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (1986), 204–215.
- Ng, Nathan K. K., The Spirituality of Athanasius (1991)
- Pettersen, Alvyn (1995). Athanasius. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse.
- Rubenstein, Richard E., When Jesus Became God: The Epic Fight over Christ’s Divinity in the Last Days of Rome (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999).
- Williams, Rowan, "Arius, Heresy and Tradition" (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987).
|Wikisource has the text of the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article St. Athanasius.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Athanasius.|
|Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Official web site of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa
- Saint Athanasius by F. A. Forbes
- The Coptic Synexarion commemorating the departure of St. Athanasius the Apostolic (7 Bashans, 89 A.M.)
- Athanasius Bibliography from University of Erlangen (German)
- Archibald Robinson, Athanasius: Select Letters and Works (Edinburgh 1885)
- The so-called Athanasian Creed (not written by Athanasius, see Athanasian Creed above)
- Athanasius Select Resources, Bilingual Anthology (in Greek original and English)
- Two audio lectures about Athanasius on the Deity of Christ, Dr N Needham
- Concorida Cyclopedia: Athanasius
- Christian Cyclopedia: Athanasius[dead link]
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Athanasius
- Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes
- St Athanasius the Great the Archbishop of Alexandria Orthodox icon and synaxarion
- English Key to Athanasius Werke
- The Writings of Athanasius in Chronological Order
- Introducing...Athanasius audio resource by Dr. Michael Reeves. Two lectures on theologynetwork.org
-  from [Our Lady of the Rosary Library / St Athanasius]
-  from [Christian Classics Ethereal Library / St Athanasius] / extract from: [Encyclopaedia Britannica,Ninth Edition, Vol. II, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1878]
|Pope of Alexandria
Gregory of Cappadocia (Anti-patriarch, not acknowledged)