The Navigium Isidis or Isidis Navigium (trans. the vessel of Isis) was an annual ancient Roman religious festival in honor of the goddess Isis, held on March 5. The festival outlived Christian persecution by Theodosius (391) and Arcadius' persecution against the Roman religion.
Modern carnival resembles the festival of the Navigium Isidis, and some scholars argue that they share the same origin. Many elements of Carnival were in turn appropriated in the Corpus Christi festival, most prominently in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).
See also 
- Valantasis (2000) p.378
- Haase and Temporini (1986) p.1931
- Michele Renee Salzman, On Roman Time: The Codex Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (University of California Press, 1990), p. 124.
- Alföldi (1937) p.47
- Valantasis (2000) p.370
- Rudwin (1919)
- di Cocco (2007)
- Alföldi (1937) pp.57-8
- Forrest (2001) p.114
- Griffiths (1975) p.172
- Ruiz, Teofilo F. (2012) A King Travels: Festive Traditions in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain, ch.8, pp.359-ff
- Alföldi, Andreas (1937) A Festival of Isis in Rome under the Christian Emperors of the IVth Century, Budapest
- Forrest, M. Isidora (2001) Isis magic: cultivating a relationship with the goddess of 10,000 names
- Griffiths, J. Gwyn (1975) The Isis-book: Metamorphoses, Book 11, chapter Commentary pp. 111–346
- di Cocco, Giampaolo (2007) Alle origini del Carnevale: Mysteria isiaci e miti cattolici (Florence: Pontecorboli)
- Haase, Wolfgang and Temporini, Hildegard (1986) Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, Volume 16, Part 3
- Rudwin, Maximilian J. (1919) The Origin of the German Carnival Comedy in The Journal of English and Germanic Philology Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1919), pp. 402–454
- Valantasis, Richard (2000) Religions of late antiquity in practice
Further reading 
- Brady, Thomas A. (1938) Reviewed work(s): A Festival of Isis in Rome under the Christian Emperors of the Fourth Century by Andrew Alföldi, in The Journal of Roman Studies Vol. 28, Part 1 (1938), pp. 88–90
- Rademacher, Carl (1932) Carnival in Hastings ERE 3, pp. 225–9