Shire horse

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This article is about the breed of horse. For the British band, see Shirehorses.
Shire horse
A tall black horse with four white legs, standing in harness, with shafts of a cart visible
Shire horse
Distinguishing features Tall draught horse, average height 17 hands high. Legs often have white stockings with long hairs known as "feather"
Country of origin England
Breed standards
Shire Horse Society Breed standards
American Shire Horse Association Breed standards
Equus ferus caballus

The Shire horse is a breed of draught horse (BrE) or draft horse (AmE). The breed comes in many colours, including black, bay and grey. They are a tall breed, with mares standing 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) and over and stallions standing 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm) and over. The breed has an enormous capacity for weight pulling, and Shires have held the world records for both largest overall horse and tallest horse at various times. Throughout its history, the breed has been popular for pulling brewery wagons delivering ale to customers. This practice continues today, with the breed also being used for forestry, leisure and promotional pursuits.

In 1878, the British organization now known as the Shire Horse Society was created, with the American Shire Horse Association beginning in 1885. The breed was exported from Britain to the United States in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but popularity fell as mechanisation increased, reaching a low point in the 1950s and 60s. Popularity began to increase again in the 1970s and after. However, population numbers are still considered to be at critical levels by both the UK-based Rare Breeds Survival Trust and the US-based American Livestock Breeds Conservancy.

Characteristics[edit]

A tall black horse with white legs standing next to an average-sized woman who is holding the horse, but whose chin is only level with the horse's nostril. The horse has flowers braided into its mane and tail and is wearing a black surcingle decorated with brass studs.
Shires are one of the largest horse breeds; note comparison to human handler

Shire stallions may be black, bay or grey. They may not be roan or have large amounts of white markings. Mares and geldings may be black, bay, grey or roan. In the UK stallions may not be chestnut,[1] but the colour is allowed by the US registry.[2] Stallions must stand at least 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm) high when mature, and they average around 17.2 hands (70 inches, 178 cm). Geldings stand at least 16.2 hands (66 inches, 168 cm) high and mares at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm). Their average weight ranges from 900 to 1,100 kilograms (2,000 to 2,400 lb)[1] The head of a Shire is long and lean, with large eyes, set on a neck that is slightly arched and long in proportion to the body. The shoulder is deep and wide, the chest wide, the back muscular and short and the hindquarters long and wide. There is not to be too much feathering on the legs, and the hair is fine, straight and silky.[1] Smaller Shires, under 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm), are generally preferred for working horses, while taller horses, especially those over 18.2 hands (74 inches, 188 cm), are used for show and promotional purposes. The breed is known for its easy-going temperament.[3] Shires have been identified to be at risk for chronic progressive lymphedema, a chronic progressive disease that includes symptoms of progressive swelling, hyperkeratosis and fibrosis of distal limbs. The disease is similar to chronic lymphedema in humans.[4]

The Shire has an enormous capacity for weight pulling. In 1924, at a British exhibition, a pair of horses was estimated to have pulled a starting load equal to 45 tons, although an exact number could not be determined as their pull exceeded the maximum reading on the dynamometer. Working in slippery footing, the same pair of horses pulled 16.5 tons at a later exhibition.[5]

The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire named Mammoth, who was born in 1848. He stood 21.2 hands (86 inches, 218 cm) high, and his peak weight was estimated at 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb).[6] At over 19 hands (76 inches, 193 cm), a Shire gelding named Goliath was the Guinness Book of World Records record holder for the world's tallest horse until his death in 2001.[7]

Breed history[edit]

two bay (reddish-brown) horses wearing red caps over their ears, hitched to a plow and pulling it across dried grassy turf with a man walking behind the plow
A pair of Shire horses ploughing

Though oxen were used for most farm work into the 18th century, horses 'fit for the dray, the plough, or the chariot' were on sale at Smithfield Market in London as early as 1145.[8]

The English Great Horse was valued during the reign of Henry VIII, when stallions measuring less than 'fifteen handfuls' could not be kept, but the increasing role of gunpowder brought an end to the use of heavy horses in battle. Oliver Cromwell's cavalry favoured lighter, faster mounts and the big horses began to be used for draught work instead.[8] During the 16th century, Dutch engineers brought Friesian horses with them when they came to England to drain the fens, and it is probable that these horses had a significant influence on what became the Shire breed.[9]

From this medieval horse came an animal called the Old English Black Horse in the 17th century. The Black Horse was improved by the followers of Robert Bakewell, of Dishley Grange in Leicestershire,[8] resulting in a horse sometimes known as the "Bakewell Black".[10] Bakewell imported six Dutch or Flanders mares, notable since breeders tended to concentrate on improving the male line. Two different types of black horse developed: the Fen or Lincolnshire type and the Leicester or Midlands type.[8] The Fen type tended to be larger, with more bone and extra hair, while the Midlands type tended to have more endurance while being of a finer appearance.[11] The term "Shire horse" was first used in the mid-17th century, and incomplete records begin to appear near the end of the 18th century. The "Packington Blind Horse", from Leicestershire, is one of the best-known horses of the era, with direct descendents being recorded from 1770 to 1832.[3] This horse is usually recognized as the foundation stallion for the Shire breed, and he stood at stud from 1755 to 1770.[5] During the 19th century, Shires were used extensively as cart horses to move goods from the docks through the cities and countryside. The rough roads created a need for large horses with extensive musculature.[9]

A gray horse with fully white hair coat, harnessed to a log, pulling it through a green forest
A gray Shire employed in forestry

In 1878, the English Cart Horse Society was formed, and in 1884 changed its name to the Shire Horse Society. The Society published a stud book, with the first edition in 1878 containing 2,381 stallions and records dating back to 1770. Between 1901 and 1914, 5,000 Shires were registered each year with the British registry.[3][5] The first Shires were imported to the United States in 1853, with large numbers of horses being imported in the 1880s. The American Shire Horse Association was established in 1885 to register and promote the breed.[12] The Shire soon became popular in the United States, and almost 4,000 Shires were imported between 1900 and 1918. Approximately 6,700 Shires were registered with the US registry between 1909 and 1911. Around the time of World War II, increasing mechanization and strict regulations on the purchase of livestock feed reduced the need for and ability to keep draft horses. Thousands of Shires were slaughtered and several large breeding studs closed. The breed fell to its lowest point in the 1950s and 1960s, and in 1955 fewer than 100 horses were shown at the annual British Spring Show.[3][12]

In the 1970s the breed began to be revived through increased public interest. Breed societies have been established in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, France and Germany, and in 1996 the first World Shire Horse Congress was held in Peterborough. The first use within the breed of artificial insemination through frozen semen was with several Australian mares in 1997. Between the 1920s and 1930s and today, the Shire has changed in conformation. The Clydesdale was used for crossbreeding in the 1950s and 1960s, which changed the conformation of the Shire and most notably changed the feathering on the lower legs from a mass of coarse hair into the silky feathering associated with modern Shires.[3] At the peak of their population, there were over a million Shires. In the 1950s and 1960s this number declined to a few thousand.[13] In the United States, the Shire population dropped significantly in the early parts of the 20th century, and continued to decline in the 1940s and 1950s. Between 1950 and 1959, only 25 horses were registered with the US registry. However, numbers began to increase, and 121 horses were registered in the US by 1985.[12]

A reddish-brown horse with black mane and tail and all four legs having white markings from the feet to well above the knees is standing, tied, next to a bag of hay
A bay-coloured Shire, showing Clydesdale influence in colour and markings

The National Shire Horse Spring Show is still held annually and is the largest Shire show in Great Britain.[14] Currently, the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy considers the population of the Shire to be at "critical" levels,[15] meaning that the estimated global population of the breed is less than 2,000 and there are fewer than 200 registrations annually in the US.[16] The UK Rare Breeds Survival Trust considers the breed to be "at risk", meaning that population numbers are estimated to be under 1,500.[17] The Equus Survival Trust considers the breed to be "vulnerable", meaning that there are between 500 and 1500 active adult breeding mares in existence today.[18]

Uses[edit]

The Shire horse was originally the staple breed used to draw carts to deliver ale from the brewery to the public houses. A few breweries still maintain this tradition in the UK. These include the Wadworth Brewery in Devizes, Wiltshire,[19] the Hook Norton Brewery,[20] the Samuel Smith Brewery in Tadcaster,[21][22] and Thwaites Brewery, which made Shire-drawn deliveries from the early 1800s to the 1920s, then resumed service in 1960, with deliveries continuing to be horse-drawn to the present day.[23] Several breweries have recently withdrawn their Shire horse teams, including the Tetley brewery in Leeds.[24]

Today, the breed is also used for forestry work and leisure riding.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Standard of Points for Shires". Shire Horse Society. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  2. ^ "ASHA Standard of Conformation Guideline". American Shire Horse Association. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Ward, John (1998). "The Shire Horse". The Working Horse Manual. Tonbridge, UK: Farming Press. pp. 11–13. ISBN 0-85236-401-6. 
  4. ^ "Chronic Progressive Lymphedema (CPL) in Draft Horses". University of California, Davis. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  5. ^ a b c Edwards, Elwyn Hartley (1994). The Encyclopedia of the Horse (1st American ed.). New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 286–287. ISBN 1-56458-614-6. 
  6. ^ Whitaker, Julie; Whitelaw, Ian (2007). The Horse: A Miscellany of Equine Knowledge. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 60. ISBN 0-312-37108-X. 
  7. ^ Jurga, Fran (November 1, 2001). "Living Large: The Death of a Giant" (Registration required). The Horse. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  8. ^ a b c d Hart, E. (1986). The Book of the Heavy Horse. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited. pp. 45–63. ISBN 0-85059-640-8. 
  9. ^ a b Hendricks, Bonnie. International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-8061-3884-8. 
  10. ^ Swinney, Nicola Jane (2006). Horse Breeds of the World. Globe Pequot. p. 178. ISBN 1-59228-990-8. 
  11. ^ "Shire". Breeds of Livestock. Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  12. ^ a b c "Shire Draft Horse". Horse Breeds of the World. International Museum of the Horse. Archived from the original on October 29, 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  13. ^ "About the Shire Horse". Shire Horse Society. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  14. ^ "About the Shire Horse Society". Shire Horse Society. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  15. ^ "Breed Information - ALBC Conservation Priority List". American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  16. ^ "Parameters of Livestock Breeds on the ALBC Conservation Priority List (2007)". American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  17. ^ "Watchlist". Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  18. ^ "Equus Survival Trust Equine Conservation List". Equus Survival Trust. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  19. ^ "Shire Horses". Wadworth & Co, Ltd. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  20. ^ "The Shire Horses at Work in the Brewery". Hook Norton Brewery. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  21. ^ "Samuel Smith Brewery". Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  22. ^ "Samuel Smith". Merchant du Vin. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  23. ^ Mathieson, Amy (October 29, 2008). "Thwaites brewery shire horse retires after 15 years of deliveries". Horse & Hound. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  24. ^ "Time called on Tetley dray horses". BBC News. May 8, 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 

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