St. John Ambulance
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|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (December 2014)|
St John Ambulance logo
Countries with national organisations affiliated to SJA
Pro Utilitate Hominum
(Latin for For the Faith and In the Service of Humanity)
|Purpose||Medical care, humanitarian relief, youth programmes|
|Headquarters||Priory House, 25 St John's Lane, Clerkenwell, London EC1M 4PP, England, United Kingdom|
|42 national organisations|
|Order of St John|
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance services, all of which derive their origins from the St John Ambulance Association founded in 1877 in the United Kingdom. The active uniformed first-aiders known as the St John Ambulance Brigade were introduced in 1887. There are now more than 500,000 such volunteers worldwide.
In several priories St John Ambulance has commercial sections or subsidiaries operating to generate surplus for charitable activities; these are structured much like other commercial bodies. The membership aspect of St John Ambulance is largely ranked, and members fall into a hierarchical structure of command. Ranks run from corporals, through sergeants and officers all the way up to high national ranks, but there is significant variation between Priories and it is hard to generalise the structure too much from an international perspective.
Most members of St John Ambulance are not themselves members of the Order, and vice versa, so a major presence of the Order does not dictate a major presence of St John Ambulance. Most notably, the Order of St John is primarily, although not exclusively, a Christian organisation, whereas St John Ambulance is keen to ensure there is no allegiance to any particular religion or denomination, so as to remain available to all. St John Ambulance works on a more geographical nature than the Order, and has to contend with the differing national laws, medical practices and cultures of countries.
National and regional
The legal status of each organisation varies by country; in both England and Wales the resident St John Ambulance organisations are simultaneously but separately registered as charities and companies, whereas St John Ambulance South Africa (for the sake of example) is a distinct entity registered as a "public benefit organisation".
The presence of St John Ambulance is different between different countries:
- St John Ambulance in Australia
- St. John Ambulance in British Forces Overseas
- St John Ambulance in Canada
- St. John Ambulance in Cyprus
- St John Ambulance in England and the Islands
- St John Ambulance in Hong Kong
- St John Ambulance in India
- St John Ambulance in Ireland
- St John Ambulance in Malaysia
- St John Ambulance in New Zealand
- St. John Ambulance in Singapore
- St John Ambulance in South Africa
- St. John Ambulance in Sri Lanka
- St John Ambulance in Wales
- St. John Ambulance in Zimbabwe
- St. John Ambulance in Kenya
- St. John Ambulance in Uganda
- St. John Ambulance in Tanzania
In the aftermath of World War II, British soldiers established Saint John brigades in Germany. In cooperation with the Johanniter Orden (the Protestant German Order of Saint John), the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe was founded in 1952. In recent years, more national Saint John societies, not directly linked to the British St. John Ambulance, have been founded in Europe, notably in Austria and Poland
At the international meeting of the governing bodies of the Orders of Saint John in the course of celebrations to mark the Order's 900th anniversary in 1999, the idea to cooperate more intensively within Europe was born. As a result, Johanniter International today links sixteen national Saint John organisations all over Europe.
Name and mottos
The unusual name of the organisation has been known to cause confusion to members of the public, and many people often assume that the "St John" prefix indicates a church related organisation. In fact, in its modern form, the prefix refers to the Order of St. John (which in fact is a Christian organisation) and is used as an adjective. However, it is often assumed to be used as a noun, and this leads to the organisation being frequently incorrectly termed "St John's Ambulance", a long standing source of irritation to some members. This is further perpetuated since members on duty are often referred to collectively as "St Johns". In terms of the Order, the original allegiance was to John the Baptist; this allegiance is not however inherited by St John Ambulance.
The Order's mottoes are Pro fide (For the faith) and Pro utilitate hominum (For the service of mankind). The 'Priory of England and The Islands' has recently replaced the Latin mottoes with a single English sentence: "For the faith and in the service of humanity", which some see as a controversial move. However in December 2006 it was agreed by Priory Council that this move should be partially reversed and the Latin mottoes were reintroduced in the Cadet Code of Chivalry.
Structure of the Order
The Order is not to be confused with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta or other members of The Alliance of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem. There are also "copycat" organisations using the St John name which are not generally recognised by members of the Alliance of Orders of St John.
Falling under the direction of the Order of St John, St John Ambulance mirrors the structure of the Order. The Order is divided internationally into Priories, reflecting the monastic history of the original Knights Hospitaller. However, these modern priories are not monastic in nature and are used purely as terminology within the organisation. Ten priories are prescribed by the Order of St John Regulations:
- The Priory of England and The Islands (including the Commandery of Ards in Northern Ireland)
- The Priory of Scotland (where the Order operates but St. John Ambulance Brigade ceased to operate in 1908)
- The Priory in Australia (Victoria, including the Commandery of Western Australia)
- The Priory of Canada
- The Priory in New Zealand
- The Priory for South Africa
- The Priory in the United States of America
- The Priory for Wales
- The Priory of St John Kenya
- The Priory of St John Singapore
The Priory of England and The Islands is the home priory of the Order, and any country which does not belong to its own dedicated priory is assumed into this home priory. Most of these are small Commonwealth islands, or countries in which there is only a minor presence.
That said, the relationship between the Order of St. John and St. John Ambulance is not directly paralleled. This explains somewhat why a breakdown into Priories may not be tantamount to a breakdown of St John Ambulance.
- 10 July 1877: St John Ambulance Association formed to teach first-aid in large railway centres and mining districts.
- June 1887: St John Ambulance Brigade is formed as a uniformed organisation to provide a First Aid and Ambulance services at public events.
- 14 May 1888: British Order of St John is granted royal charter by Queen Victoria.
- 1908: By mutual agreement with St Andrew's Ambulance Association, St John Ambulance Association ceased operating in Scotland but the Order continued to operate.
- 1974 The St John Ambulance Association and The St John Ambulance Brigade were amalgamated to form the present St John Ambulance Foundation
- 1999: The Order of St John celebrated its 900th anniversary worldwide
- St John Ambulance Ranks and Insignia
- Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
- Insignia of the Venerable Order of St John
- Service Medal of the Order of St John
- St John Ambulance Cadets in the UK
- John International website
- The Difference - newsletter from St John Ambulance, (Nov 2014) p4 "A Brief History of St John Ambulance"
- M Durrant (1948) American Journal of Nursing 48 (12) pp763–765 "St. John Ambulance Brigade"
- St John Ambulance - official website
- Museum of St John in Clerkenwell, London
- Annual inspection of Birmingham's St. John's Ambulance Brigade & Nursing Corps. by Maj.-Gen. Sir P. Wilkinson, 1928 (Pathé newsreel)