Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq
The withdrawal of American military forces from Iraq was started in June 2009 and was completed by December 2011, bringing an end to the Iraq War.
The withdrawal of American military forces from Iraq was a contentious issue within the United States for much of the 2000s, being debated fervidly since the beginning of the Iraq War in March 2003. As the war progressed from its initial invasion phase to a nearly decade-long presence, American public opinion shifted towards favoring a troop withdrawal; in May 2007, 55 percent of Americans believed that the Iraq War was a mistake, and 51 percent of registered voters favored troop withdrawal. In late April 2007, the U.S. Congress passed a supplementary spending bill for Iraq that set a deadline for troop withdrawal, but President Bush vetoed this bill soon afterwards. All American military forces were mandated to withdraw from Iraqi territory by 31 December 2011 under the terms of a bilateral agreement signed in 2008 by President Bush. The U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq was completed on 18 December 2011 early Sunday morning.
Immediately before and after the 2003 invasion, most polls within the United States showed a substantial majority supporting war, though since December 2004 polls consistently showed that a majority thought the invasion was a mistake. In the spring of 2007, surveys generally showed a majority in favor of setting a timetable for withdrawal. However, in this area responses can vary widely with the exact wording of the question. Surveys found that most preferred a gradual withdrawal over time to an immediate pullout.
2004 U.S. Presidential election 
The issue was one on which John Kerry and George W. Bush differed in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Kerry said in August 2004 that he would make the withdrawal of all U.S. forces from Iraq a goal of his first presidential term. However, he did not offer a deadline or a timetable, and proposed an increase in deployment size in the immediate future. In the debate, he said that he reiterated that withdrawal was a goal, if an initial troop increase works.
In the debate, Bush did not offer any timetable or estimate of troops, either increasing or decreasing, but said only that the commanders of the troops in Iraq had the ability to ask for whatever force they needed. In general, this is consistent with his earlier remarks. When questioned about troop strength, Bush and then-Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said that they were using the troops asked for by the general staff.
Congressional proposals and acts 
|U.S. Congressional opposition
to American involvement in
wars and interventions
|1812 North America|
|House Federalists’ Address|
|1847 Mexican–American War|
|1917 World War I|
|Filibuster of the Armed Ship Bill|
|1970 Southeast Asia|
|Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution|
|1973 Southeast Asia|
|War Powers Resolution|
|House Concurrent Resolution 63|
On 17 November 2005, Representative John Murtha introduced H.J.Res. 73, a resolution calling for U.S. forces in Iraq to be "redeployed at the earliest practicable date" to stand as a quick-reaction force in U.S. bases in neighboring countries such as Kuwait. In response, Republicans proposed a resolution that "the deployment of United States forces in Iraq be terminated immediately," without any provision for redeployment, which was voted down 403–3.
On 16 June 2006, the House voted 256–153 in a non-binding resolution against establishing a deadline for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq. Republican then-House Majority Leader John Boehner, who argued against a deadline, stated "achieving victory is our only option", and "we must not shy away". On the other hand, Democratic then-House Minority Leader and current Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi argued that a deadline is necessary, and stated "'stay the course' is not a strategy, it's a slogan", and "it's time to face the facts."
On 27 March 2007, Congress passed H.R. 1591, which called for the withdrawal of U.S. troops in Iraq by March 2008. However, President Bush vetoed the bill and the House of Representatives failed to override the veto. Congress then passed H.R. 2206, which provided funding for the Iraq War through 30 September 2007 and was signed into law by President Bush on 25 May 2007. H.R. 2206 included eighteen benchmarks for the Iraqi government to meet.
On 9 May 2007, Representative Jim McGovern introduced H.R. 2237 to the House: "To provide for the redeployment of United States Armed Forces and defense contractors from Iraq." The bill failed with a vote of 255 to 171, thirteen of the Nays coming from Democrats representing districts won by John Kerry in 2004.
On 12 July 2007 the House passed H.R. 2956 by a vote of 223 to 201, for redeployment (or withdrawal) of U.S. armed forces out of Iraq. The resolution requires most troops to withdraw from Iraq by 1 April 2008.
On 18 July 2007, after an all-night debate, the Senate blocked the passage of a bill that would have set a troop withdrawal timetable with a vote of 52–47. The withdrawal would have started within 120 days, and would have required that all troops (except an unspecified number could be left behind to conduct a very narrow set of missions) be out of the country by 30 April 2008.
McGovern-Polk proposal 
George McGovern and William R. Polk published a detailed proposal for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq in their book Out of Iraq: A Practical Plan for Withdrawal Now. (Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 1-4165-3456-3) A sizable excerpt was published in the October 2006 edition of Harper's magazine. This plan was completely abandoned. Some of the basic features of their proposal included:
- The first soldiers to be sent home should be private security contractors.
- An international stabilization force of 15,000 soldiers to be established. Troops will be drawn from Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt, funded by the U.S. This force would remain for two years after the departure of U.S. troops.
- Transport, communications, and light arms equipment currently used by U.S. forces should be donated to the new multinational force.
- In place of a new Iraqi army, a national reconstruction corps should be established, modeled on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
- The immediate cessation of work on U.S. military bases.
- U.S. withdrawal from the Green Zone.
- Release of all prisoners of war.
ANSWER, NION, UFPJ positions 
The 3 largest coalitions which organized demonstrations against the invasion of Iraq in 2003, United for Peace and Justice (UFPJ), Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (ANSWER), and Not in Our Name (NION), have all called for the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops, "out now." The anti-war movement has debated whether to support existing proposals in Congress.
The UFPJ legislative working group has endorsed Murtha's redeployment proposal "because it is a powerful vehicle to begin the debate on the war," though the organization as a whole has not taken a position. ANSWER, on the other hand, has stated that "Murtha has not adopted an antiwar position. He wants to redeploy militarily to strengthen the hand of U.S. imperialism in the Middle East."
Burner Plan 
The Burner Plan, formally entitled A Responsible Plan to End the War in Iraq, was a 36-page policy paper presented 17 March 2008 by Darcy Burner and other 2008 Democratic congressional candidates, in cooperation with some retired national security officials. The plan outlined policy measures the candidates pledged to support in the United States presidential election, 2008.
2008 U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement 
In 2008, the American and Iraqi governments signed the U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement which stipulates that all American forces should withdraw from Iraqi cities by 30 June 2009 and from Iraqi territory altogether by 31 December 2011. On 14 December 2008, then-U.S. President George W. Bush signed the security pact with Iraq. In his fourth and final trip to Iraq, the president appeared with Iraq's prime minister Nouri al-Maliki and said more work is to be done.
President Obama's speech on 27 February 2009 
On 27 February 2009, at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina, President Barack Obama announced a deadline for the withdrawal of combat troops from Iraq. According to the president, by 31 August 2010, after nearly seven and a half years of United States military engagement in Iraq, all but a "transitional force" of 35,000 to 50,000 troops would be withdrawn from the Middle Eastern nation. President Obama defined the task of the transitional force as "training, equipping, and advising Iraqi Security Forces as long as they remain non-sectarian; conducting targeted counter-terrorism missions; and protecting our ongoing civilian and military efforts within Iraq". Under this plan, the majority of troops will be withdrawn just a month after the deadline in the signed agreement between former President George W. Bush and Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki where the majority of troops will be withdrawn at one point, and the entirety of troops to be out by 31 December 2011.
August 2010 partial withdrawal 
On 19 August 2010, the 4th Stryker Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division was the last American combat brigade to withdraw from Iraq. About 50,000 American troops would remain in the country in an advisory capacity. According to the US, they'll help to train Iraqi forces in a new mission dubbed by the United States as "Operation New Dawn," which will run until the end of 2011. The mission that ended 19 August 2010 was dubbed by the US as "Operation Iraqi Freedom," at a projected cost of more than $900 billion and 4,415 U.S. military personnel killed in action. Over 100,000 Iraqi civilians were estimated to be killed, according to the Iraq Body Count website. President Obama announced the end of Operation Iraqi Freedom in his Oval Office address on 31 August 2010.
Full withdrawal (2011) 
With the collapse of the discussions about extending the stay of any U.S. troops, on 21 October 2011, President Obama announced the full withdrawal of troops from Iraq as scheduled before. The U.S. will retain an embassy in Baghdad with some 17,000 personnel, consulates in Basra, Mosul and Kirkuk, which have been allocated more than 1,000 staff each and between 4,000 to 5,000 defense contractors. President Obama and al-Maliki outlined a broad agenda for post-war cooperation without American troops in Iraq during a joint press conference on 12 December 2011 at the White House. This agenda includes cooperation on energy, trade and education as well as cooperation in security, counter-terrorism, economic development and strengthening Iraq's institutions. Both leaders said their countries will maintain strong security, diplomatic and economic ties after the last U.S. combat forces withdraw at the end of 2011.
President Barack Obama paid tribute to the troops who served in Iraq on 14 December 2011, at the Fort Bragg military base in North Carolina. As the last of the American troops prepared to exit Iraq, he said the United States was leaving behind a "sovereign, stable and self-reliant" Iraq. On 15 December, an American military ceremony was held in Baghdad putting a formal end to the U.S mission in Iraq. The last 500 soldiers left Iraq under cover of darkness and under strict secrecy on early morning of 18 December 2011 and formally ended the U.S. military presence in Iraq. At the time of withdrawal, the United States had one remaining soldier, Staff Sergeant Ahmed K. Altaie, still missing in Iraq since 23 October 2006, and had offered a $50,000 reward for his recovery. On 26 February 2012, his death was confirmed. About 160 embassy guards guard the U.S. embassy in Baghdad, just like all of the other American embassies around the world.
See also 
- House Concurrent Resolution 63: Disapproval of troop surge
- Kerry-Feingold Amendment
- Opposition to the Iraq War
- Strategic reset
- "How Not to End a War". The Defense Department. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "Quinnipiac University Poll".
- "Senate passes Iraq withdrawal bill; veto threat looms". CNN. 26 April 2007.
- "Bush vetoes war-funding bill with withdrawal timetable". CNN. 2 May 2007.
- "US troops complete their withdrawal from Iraq". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Iraq". Pollingreport.com. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "Confidence in U.S. Foreign Policy Index". Publicagenda.org. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "House rejects Iraq withdrawal deadline". MSNBC. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Angle, Martha (12 July 2007). "Defying Bush, House Passes New Deadline for Withdrawal From Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- Warner, John (11 June 2007). "Excerpt of Senator Warner's Iraq benchmark provisions in H.R.2206, U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007.". United States Senate. Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- "H.R. 2237". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- wcbstv.com – House Passes Troop Withdrawal Bill[dead link]
- "House passes bill to bring troops home in '08 –". CNN. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Flaherty, Anne (18 July 2007). "Senate Troop Withdrawal Bill Scuttled". Time. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- UFPJ Legislative Action Network National Conference Call 2-6-06, (mirror)
- Act Now to Stop War & End Racism (ANSWER): A.N.S.W.E.R. Responds to UFPJ: Our Position on Unity in the AntiWar Movement, 16 December 2005, (mirror)
- "Obama's Speech at Camp Lejeune, N.C.". The New York Times. 27 February 2009.
- Staff Sgt Michael J Caden (15 December 2008). "Bush, Maliki Sign Security Pact in Baghdad". DVIDS. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Burns, Robert (21 August 2008). "Officials: Draft accord on troop pullback in Iraq". USA Today. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Stone, Andrea (15 December 2008). "Bush signs security deal in Iraq". USA Today. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Al Jazeera and agencies (19 August 2010). "Last US combat brigade leaves Iraq". Al Jazeera and agencies. Retrieved 19 August 2010. "The 4th SBCT, 2ID left Baghdad and drove the entire distance to the Kuwaiti border in the same footprints that 3rd ID made during the invasion known as the "Race for Baghdad". I was one of those people driving out. We faced intense heat, the very real threat of the "final strike" against us and the possibility of breaking down in unsecured areas with very little support and the only combat power was what we brought with us. I crossed the border at 0548 in the morning and doing such, helped bring this war to an end, officially."
- Lara Jakes and Rebecca Santana (15 October 2012). "Iraq Withdrawal: U.S. Abandoning Plans To Keep Troops In Country". Associated Press (AP). Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- MacAskill (21 October 2011). "Iraq rejects US request to maintain bases after troop withdrawal". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Denselow, James (25 October 2011). "The US departure from Iraq is an illusion". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Pace, Julie (12 December 2011). "Obama, Maliki chart next steps for U.S., Iraq". Associated Press.
- Robinson, Dan (12 December 2011). "Obama, Maliki Hail 'New Chapter' for Iraq Without US Troops". Associated Press.
- "Obama Pays Tribute to Troops Who Served in Iraq". Voice of America. 14 December 2011.
- "US flag ceremony ends Iraq operation". BBC. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "US lowers flag to end Iraq war". London. Associated Press. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Mak, Tim (15 December 2011). "Leon Panetta marks end of Iraq war". POLITICO.com. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "Last U.S. troops leave Iraq, ending war". USA Today. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Cutler, David (18 December 2011). "Timeline: Invasion, surge, withdrawal; U.S. forces in Iraq". Reuters. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Last US troops withdraw from Iraq". BBC. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Green, Catherine (18 December 2011). "Final US Convoy Withdraws From Iraq". neontommy.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Engel, Richard (18 December 2011). "'The war is over': Last US soldiers leave Iraq". NBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "We will never forget Sgt. Ahmed Altaie". US Army Reserve. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Allam, Hannah (26 February 2012). "U.S. military receives remains of last soldier missing in Iraq". McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Army IDs remains of last missing U.S. soldier in Iraq". Associated Press (AP). 27 February 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Graff, Peter (27 February 2012). "Michigan burial for last U.S. soldier missing in Iraq". Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Landler, Mark (21 October 2011). "U.S. Troops to Leave Iraq by Year's End, Obama Says". The New York Times.
Further reading 
- Anthony Arnove, Iraq: The Logic of Withdrawal. Haymarket Books, Chicago, 2006.
- Malorie R. Medellin, "Iraq: Pull-out Rundown," Current (Winter 2007): 9.
- George McGovern and William Roe Polk, Out of Iraq: A Practical Plan for Withdrawal Now. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2006.
- Rumsfeld forced out: Are U.S. troops next? Toronto Star – 9 November 2006