1687 Peru earthquake

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1687 Peru earthquake
1687 Peru earthquake is located in Peru
1687 Peru earthquake
Date October 20, 1687 (1687-10-20)
Magnitude 8.7 Magnitude Mw
Epicenter 15°12′S 75°54′W / 15.2°S 75.9°W / -15.2; -75.9Coordinates: 15°12′S 75°54′W / 15.2°S 75.9°W / -15.2; -75.9[1]
Countries or regions Peru
Tsunami yes
Casualties 5,000

The 1687 Peru earthquake occurred at 11:30 UTC on October 20. It had an estimated magnitude of 8.4–8.7 and caused severe damage to Lima, Callao and Ica. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.

Tectonic setting[edit]

The earthquake occurred along the boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. The earthquake is likely to be a result of thrust-faulting, caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate.

The coastal parts of Peru and Chile have a history of great megathrust earthquakes originating from this plate boundary, such as the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

Damage[edit]

The port of Pisco was completely destroyed by the tsunami, with at least three ships being swept over the remains of the town.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

The earthquake was probably followed by another large event further to the south.[2] A magnitude of 8.7 has been estimated from tsunami run-up heights and by comparison with the earthquake of 1974.[3]

The tsunami was reported in Japan where it produced run-ups of 10s of metres.[2]

Economic impact[edit]

Chile has a history of exporting cereals to Peru dating back to 1687 when Peru was struck by both an earthquake and a stem rust epidemic.[4] Chilean soil and climatic conditions were better for cereal production than those of Peru and Chilean wheat was cheaper and of better quality than Peruvian wheat.[4][5] According to historians Villalobos et al. the 1687 events were only the detonant factor for exports to start.[4]

In the 16th and 17th century the principal wine growing area of the Americas was in the central and southern coast of Peru.[6] In Peru the largest wine-making centre was in the area of Ica and Pisco.[6] The earthquake destroyed wine cellars and mud containers used for wine storage.[7] This event marked the end of the Peruvian wine-boom.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IISEE. "Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2007)". Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  2. ^ a b c Okal, E.A.; Borrero J.C. & Synolakis C.E. (2006). "Evaluation of Tsunami Risk from Regional Earthquakes at Pisco, Peru". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 96 (5): 1634–1648. Bibcode:2006BuSSA..96.1634O. doi:10.1785/0120050158. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  3. ^ Beck, S.L.; Nishenko S.P. (1990). "Variations in the mode of great earthquake rupture along the central Peru subduction zone". Geophysical Research Letters 17 (11): 1969–1972. Bibcode:1990GeoRL..17.1969B. doi:10.1029/GL017i011p01969. 
  4. ^ a b c (Spanish) Villalobos, Sergio; Silva, Osvaldo; Silva, Fernando and Estelle, Patricio. 1974. Historia de Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Chile. p 155-160.
  5. ^ Collier, Simon and Sater, William F. 2004. A History of Chile: 1808-2002 Cambridge University Press. p. 10.
  6. ^ a b Huertas Vallejos, Lorenzo. 2004. Historia de la producción de vinos y piscos en el Perú
  7. ^ La vid y el vino en América del Sur: el desplazamiento de los polos vitivinícolas (siglos XVI al XX)
  8. ^ El origen, producción y comercio del pisco chileno, 1546-1931