16 Personality Factors
||It has been suggested that this article be merged into 16PF Questionnaire. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2012.|
||The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. (April 2012)|
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (April 2012)|
The 16 Personality Factors, measured by the 16PF Questionnaire, were derived using factor-analysis by psychologist Raymond Cattell. This article summarizes the analysis that resulted in the 16 factors and allowed the development of the questionnaire, as well as the relation between the 16 factor theory and the popular five-factor personality theory.
Below is a table outlining this model. The factors are ordered based on how much variance they account for.
Raymond Cattell's 16 Personality Factors 
|Descriptors of Low Range||Primary Factor||Descriptors of High Range|
|Impersonal, distant, cool, reserved, detached, formal, aloof||Warmth
|Warm, outgoing, attentive to others, kindly, easy-going, participating, likes people|
|Concrete thinking, lower general mental capacity, less intelligent, unable to handle abstract problems||Reasoning
|Abstract-thinking, more intelligent, bright, higher general mental capacity, fast learner|
|Reactive emotionally, changeable, affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset||Emotional Stability
|Emotionally stable, adaptive, mature, faces reality calmly|
|Deferential, cooperative, avoids conflict, submissive, humble, obedient, easily led, docile, accommodating||Dominance
|Dominant, forceful, assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn, bossy|
|Serious, restrained, prudent, taciturn, introspective, silent||Liveliness
|Lively, animated, spontaneous, enthusiastic, happy-go-lucky, cheerful, expressive, impulsive|
|Expedient, nonconforming, disregards rules, self-indulgent||Rule-Consciousness
|Rule-conscious, dutiful, conscientious, conforming, moralistic, staid, rule bound|
|Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, hesitant, intimidated||Social Boldness
|Socially bold, venturesome, thick-skinned, uninhibited|
|Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, tough minded, self-reliant, no-nonsense, rough||Sensitivity
|Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tender-minded, intuitive, refined|
|Trusting, unsuspecting, accepting, unconditional, easy||Vigilance
|Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, distrustful, oppositional|
|Grounded, practical, prosaic, solution oriented, steady, conventional||Abstractedness
|Abstract, imaginative, absent minded, impractical, absorbed in ideas|
|Forthright, genuine, artless, open, guileless, naive, unpretentious, involved||Privateness
|Private, discreet, nondisclosing, shrewd, polished, worldly, astute, diplomatic|
|Self-assured, unworried, complacent, secure, free of guilt, confident, self-satisfied||Apprehension
|Apprehensive, self-doubting, worried, guilt prone, insecure, worrying, self blaming|
|Traditional, attached to familiar, conservative, respecting traditional ideas||Openness to Change
|Open to change, experimental, liberal, analytical, critical, free-thinking, flexibility|
|Group-oriented, affiliative, a joiner and follower dependent||Self-Reliance
|Self-reliant, solitary, resourceful, individualistic, self-sufficient|
|Tolerates disorder, unexacting, flexible, undisciplined, lax, self-conflict, impulsive, careless of social rules, uncontrolled||Perfectionism
|Perfectionistic, organized, compulsive, self-disciplined, socially precise, exacting will power, control, self-sentimental|
|Relaxed, placid, tranquil, torpid, patient, composed low drive||Tension
|Tense, high energy, impatient, driven, frustrated, over wrought, time driven.|
|Primary Factors and Descriptors in Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model (Adapted From Conn & Rieke, 1994).|
In 1936 Gordon Allport and H.S. Odbert hypothesized that:
|“||Those individual differences that are most salient and socially relevant in people’s lives will eventually become encoded into their language; the more important such a difference, the more likely is it to become expressed as a single word.||”|
This statement has become known as the Lexical Hypothesis, which posits that if there is a word for a trait, it must be a real trait. Allport and Odbert utilized this hypothesis to identify personality traits by working through two of the most comprehensive dictionaries of the English language available at the time, and extracting 18,000 personality-describing words. From this gigantic list they extracted 4500 personality-describing adjectives which they considered to describe observable and relatively permanent traits.
The 16 Personality Factors were identified in 1946 by Raymond Cattell. He believed that in order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data (life records or observation), Q data (information from questionnaires), and T-data (information from objective tests The development of the 16PF Questionnaire, although confusingly named, was an attempt to develop an adequate measure of T-data. Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyze the list of 4500 adjectives through the statistical technique of factor analysis, which seeks to identify constructs that underlie observed variables. He organized the list of adjectives into fewer than 200 items and asked subjects to rate people whom they knew on each of the adjectives on the list (an example of L-data because the information was gathered from observers). This allowed Cattell to narrow down to 35 terms. Ratings of the 35 terms were factor-analyzed, revealing a 12 factor solution. After the 35 terms were made into self-rating items Cattell found that there were 4 additional factors, which he believed consisted of information that could only be provided through self-rating. This process allowed the use of ratings by observers, questionnaires, and objective measurements of actual behavior. Together the original 12 factors and the 4 covert factors made up the original 16 primary personality factors. As the five factor theory gained traction and research on the 16 factors continued, subsequent analysis identified five factors underlying the 16 factors. Cattell called these global factors.
Personality research author Schuerger stated that:
|“||Cattell's goal in creating the 16PF Questionnaire was to provide a thorough, research-based map of normal personality.||”|
Since its release in 1949, the 16PF Questionnaire has been revised four times: once in 1956, once in 1962, once in 1968, and the current version was developed in 1993. The test was also re-standardized in 2002, along with the development of forms for children and teenagers. Additionally, there is a shortened form available primarily for employee selection and the questionnaire has been adapted into more than 35 languages. The questionnaire has also been validated in a range of international cultures over time.
Relationship to five factor models 
In the Fourth (1967) and Fifth (1993) Editions of the 16PF, there were five global factors that seem to correspond fairly closely to the "Big five personality traits." The Big-Five trait of Openness seems to be related to 16PF Openness/Tough-mindedness, The Big-Five trait of Conscientiousness to the 16PF Self-Control, the Big-Five Extraversion to the 16PF Extraversion, the Big-Five Agreeableness/Dis-Agreeablenss to the 16PF Independence/Accommodation, and the Big-Five Neuroticism to the 16PF Anxiety. In fact, the development of the Big-Five factors began by factor-analyzing the original items as the 16PF. and in 1963, W.T. Norman replicated Cattell’s work and suggested that five factors would be sufficient.
However, one big technical difference between Cattell's five Global Factors and popular five-factor models was Cattell's insistence on using oblique rotation in the original factor analyses that defined the traits, whereas Goldberg and Costa & McCrae used orthogonal rotation in their factor analysis, thus simplifying their analyses. Oblique rotation allows the factors to correlate with each other, according to the degree of relatedness found in the underlying data. However, orthogonal rotation restricts the factors from correlating with each other and forces them to be independent.
Although most personality traits are thought to be correlated to one degree or another, using orthogonal factor analysis makes the factors easier for different researchers to understand and to work on statistically in research because the factors are arbitrarily forced to have particular uncorrelated definitions. This is one of the reasons the Big-Five traits have definitions that are slightly different from the original 16PF global factors. Both systems show good correlations between their Extraversion factors; the Big-Five Neuroticism factor correlates fairly well with the 16PF's Anxiety factor; and Big-Five Conscientiousness correlates well with 16PG global Self-Control factor. However, the Big-Five Agreeableness trait is less well-correlated with the 16PF Independence-Accommodation factor, and the Big-Five Openness factor is more limited on scope than the 16PF Openness-Tough-Mindedness Trait. In particular, as seen in the table below, in the 16PF model the primary personality trait of Dominance (Factor E) is strongly located in the Independence/Accommodation global factor which represents a quality of fearless, original thinking and forceful, independent actions. However, other popular big five models consider Dominance as a facet of several Big-Five traits, including Extraversion, Dis-Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Thus the basic trait of Dominance is spread across a range of Big-Five factors with little influence on any one (Cattell & Mead, 2008). Below is a table that shows how the 16 primary factors are related to the five global factors of the 16 Personality Factor theory. Compare with the Hierarchical Structure of the Big Five. Also, note that factor B is considered separate from the other factors because it is not a part of the hierarchical structure of personality in the same way as the other factors.
16PF Global and Primary Factors 
|Extraversion/Introversion||High Anxiety/Low Anxiety||Tough-Mindedness/Receptivity||Independence/Accommodation||Self-Control/Lack of Restraint|
|A: Reserved/Warm||C: Emotionally Stable/Reactive||A: Warm/Reserved||E: Deferential/Dominant||F: Serious/Lively||B: Problem-Solving|
|F: Serious/Lively||L: Trusting/Vigilant||I: Sensitive/Unsentimental||H: Shy/Bold||G: Expedient/Rule-Conscious|
|H: Shy/Bold||O: Self-Assured/Apprehensive||M: Abstracted/Practical||L: Trusting/Vigilant||M: Abstracted/Practical|
|N: Private/Forthright||Q4: Relaxed/Tense||Q1: Open-to-Change/Traditional||Q1: Traditional/Open-to-Change||Q3: Tolerates Disorder/Perfectionistic|
See also 
- Cattell, H. E. P., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen personality factor questionnaire (16PF). In G. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske, Eds.) The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment; Vol 2 Personality measurement and testing (pp. 135–178). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
- Russell, M.T., & Karol, D. (2002). 16PF Fifth Edition administrator’s manual."
- Schuerger, J. M. (2009). The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire: 16PF. In C. E. Watkins, Jr., and V. L. Campbell (Eds.), "Testing and Assessment in Counseling Practice" (pp. 67–99). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Cattell, H. E. P., and Schuerger, J. M. (2003). "Essentials of 16PF Assessment." Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Cattell, R.B. (1946). The description and measurement of personality. New York: World Book.
- Cattell, R.B. (1957). Personality and motivation structure and measurement. New York: World Book.
- Cattell, R.B. (1973). ‘’Personality and mood by questionnaire.’’ San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Cattell, H. B. (1989). "The 16PF: Personality In Depth." Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.
- Cattell, H.E.P. & Mead, A.D. (2008). The 16PF Questionnaire. In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D.H. Saklofske (Eds), The Sage Handbook of Personality Theory and Testing: Vol. 2, Personality Measurement and Testing., Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
- Cattell, H.E.P. (1996). The original big-five: A historical perspective. ‘’European Review of Psychology, 46’’(1), 5-14.
- Conn, S.R., & Rieke, M.L. (1994). The 16PF Fifth Edition technical manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.
- Costa, P.T., Jr., McCrae, R.R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Further reading 
- Gregory, Robert J. (2011). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications (Sixth ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-78214-7. Lay summary (7 November 2010).
- Contributions and Limitations of Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Model
- The International Personality Item Pool has public domain scales measuring the sixteen factors.
- Online implementation.
- The IPAT is the company founded by Raymond Cattell that produces the 16PF Questionnaire