2024 aluminium alloy

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Aluminium alloy 2024 is an aluminium alloy, with copper as the primary alloying element. It is used in applications requiring high strength to weight ratio, as well as good fatigue resistance. It is weldable only through friction welding, and has average machinability. Due to poor corrosion resistance, it is often clad with aluminium or Al-1Zn for protection, although this may reduce the fatigue strength.[1][2] In older systems of terminology, this alloy was named 24ST.

2024 is commonly extruded, and also available in alclad sheet and plate forms. It is not commonly forged (the related 2014 aluminum alloy is, though).[3]

Basic properties[edit]

Aluminium alloy 2024 has a density of 2.78 g/cm³ (0.1  lb/in³), electrical conductivity of 30% IACS, Young's Modulus of 73 GPa (10.6 Msi) across all tempers, and begins to melt at 500 °C (932 °F).[4]

2024 aluminium alloy's composition roughly includes 4.3-4.5% copper, 0.5-0.6% manganese, 1.3-1.5% magnesium and less than a half a percent of silicon, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead and bismuth.

Mechanical properties[edit]

The mechanical properties of 2024 depend greatly on the temper of the material.[1]

2024-O[edit]

2024-O temper aluminium has no heat treating. It has a maximum tensile strength of 30-32 ksi (207-220 MPa), and maximum yield strength of no more than 14,000 psi (96 MPa). The material has elongation (stretch before ultimate failure) of 10-25%, this is the allowable range per applicable AMS specifications.

2024-T3[edit]

T3 temper 2024 sheet has an ultimate tensile strength of 58-62 ksi (400-427 MPa) and yield strength of at least 39-40 ksi (269-276 MPa). It has an elongation of 10-15%.

2024-T4[edit]

Solution treated and naturally aged.

2024-T351[edit]

T351 temper 2024 plate has an ultimate tensile strength of 68 ksi (470 MPa) and yield strength of 41 ksi (280 MPa). It has elongation of 19%.

Uses[edit]

Due to its high strength and fatigue resistance, 2024 is widely used in aircraft structures, especially wing and fuselage structures under tension.[5][6] Additionally, since the material is susceptible to thermal shock, 2024 is used in qualification of liquid penetrant tests outside of normal temperature ranges.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Alcoa 2024 data sheet (pdf), accessed October 13, 2006
  2. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 39, 87, 118, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  3. ^ Marks' Standard handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th Ed., McGraw Hill, pp. 6-52 and 6-57
  4. ^ Material Properties Data: 2024 Aluminum - retrieved 19 April 2010.
  5. ^ Aluminum Information at aircraftspruce.com, accessed August 15, 2011
  6. ^ Fundamentals of Flight, Shevell, Richard S., 1989, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-339060-8, Ch 18, pp 373-386.
  7. ^ ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)1998 Edition, Section 5, Article 6, Subparagraph T-653.2

Further reading[edit]

  • "Properties of Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys: 2024, Alclad 2024", Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 1990, p. 70-71.