In ecology and biology, abiotic components (also called abiotic factors) are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment, which affect ecosystems. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. The abiotic factors of an ecosystem can be listed through SWATS: Soil, Water, Air, Temperature, and Sunlight.
In biology, abiotic factors can include soil acidity, light, radiation, temperature, water, atmospheric gases, and soil. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Pressure and sound waves may also be considered in the context of marine or sub-terrestrial environments.
All of these factors affect different organisms to different extents. If there is little or no sunlight then plants may wither and die from not being able to get enough sunlight to do photosynthesis. Many archaea require very high temperatures, or pressures, or unusual concentrations of chemical substances, such as sulfur, because of their specialization into extreme conditions. Certain fungi have evolved to survive mostly at the temperature, the humidity, and stability of their environment.
For example, there is a significant difference in access to water as well as humidity between temperate rainforests and deserts. This difference in water access causes a diversity in the types of plants and animals that grow in these areas.
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