Adolf Overweg (July 24, 1822 – September 27, 1852) was a German geologist, astronomer, and traveler from Hamburg. As a member of a mission to fix trade routes in Central Africa he became the first person of European origin to circumnavigate Lake Chad. In 1849 he joined an expedition under the command of James Richardson set to leave Tripoli in the Spring of 1850 in order to help the British government forge relations with central African kingdoms. They crossed the Sahara, splitting up in 1851 with Overweg trekking by route of Zinder to Kukawa, rejoining expedition scientist Heinrich Barth. After 18 months of exploring the Adamawa Emirate, Benue River, and finally completing his most notable feat of circumnavigating Lake Chad, he died in Maduari, Chad.