An agricultural revolution or agrarian revolution is a period of transition from a pre-agricultural period characterized by a Paleolithic diet, into an agricultural period characterized by a diet of cultivated foods; or a further transition from a living form of agriculture into a more advanced and more productive form of agriculture, resulting in further social changes. Examples of historical agricultural revolutions include:
- The Neolithic Revolution (around 10,000 B.C.E), the initial transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture in prehistory. This period is commonly referred to as the 'First Agricultural Revolution'.
- The Arab Agricultural Revolution (8th–13th centuries), a term coined by the historian Andrew Watson postulating a fundamental transformation in agriculture arising from the diffusion of crops through the Islamic world.
- The British Agricultural Revolution (17th–19th centuries), an increase in agricultural productivity in Great Britain which helped drive the Industrial Revolution.
- The Scottish Agricultural Revolution (18th–19th centuries), the British Agricultural Revolution in Scotland specifically, which led to the Lowland Clearances.
- The Green Revolution (1943–late 1970s), a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased industrialized agriculture production in India and other countries in the developing world (the 'Second Agricultural Revolution').