|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||234.4 g/mol|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Ajoene // is a chemical compound available from garlic (Allium sativum). It was first isolated in 1983 by its inventors (patent US4665088  ) Rafael Apitz-Castro and Mahendra K. Jain and further studied in the laboratory by Eric Block together with the inventors and other coworkers. The name (and pronunciation) is derived from "ajo", the Spanish word for garlic. It is found as a mixture of two isomers, E-, and Z- 4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide.
Ajoene, an unsaturated disulfide, is formed from a chemical reaction involving two allicin molecules. Allicin is a sulfinyl compound that gives garlic its strong odor and flavor. The release of allicin occurs after a garlic clove is crushed or finely chopped. Subsequent formation of ajoene occurs when allicin is dissolved in various solvents including edible oils. Ajoene is also found in garlic extract. Ajoene is most stable and most abundant in macerate of garlic (chopped garlic in edible oil).
Scientists have found that ajoene has many properties of interest to current medicine. It functions as an antioxidant, by inhibiting the release of superoxide. Ajoene also has antithrombotic (anti-clotting) properties, which helps prevent platelets in the blood from forming blood clots, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke in humans. Ajoene has shown potential virucidal properties against a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis, vaccinia, human rhinovirus parainfluenza, and herpes simplex. In the infected cell system of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is shown to block the integrin-dependent processes. Ajoene is also known to have effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) properties, helpful in preventing yeast infection (Candida albicans) and treating athlete's foot (tinea pedis), for example. Ajoene has been investigated as an anti-leukemia agent for acute myeloid leukemia therapy. Ajoene has been found to decrease basal-cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis while it has also been shown effective in inhibiting tumor cell growth by targeting the microtubule cytoskeleton of such cells and by other mechanisms. In 2012 it was reported that ajoene inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.
Two isomers of ajoene based on carbon chirality (designated E- and Z-) were early identified and isolated, and, more recently, the chirality of the sulfoxide was also identified, meaning that there are in fact four isomers of the compound, with optical isomerism associated with the sulfoxide isomers.
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- Apitz-Cȧstro, R.; Cabrera, S.; Cruz, M.R.; Ledezma, E.; Jain, M.K. (October 1983). "Effects of garlic extract and of three pure components isolated from it on human platelet aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and platelet ultrastructure". Thrombosis Research 32 (2): 155–169. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(83)90027-0. Retrieved Feb 19, 2014.
- Block E, Ahmad S, Jain MK, Crecely R, Apitz-Castro R, Cruz MR (1984). "(E,Z)-Ajoene: A potent antithrombotic agent from garlic". Journal of the American Chemical Society 106: 8295–8296. doi:10.1021/ja00338a049.
- Block, Eric (1985). "The chemistry of garlic and onions". Scientific American 252 (March): 114–119. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0385-114. PMID 3975593.
- Apitz-Castro, R; Escalante, J; Vargas, R; Jain, MK (May 1, 1986). "Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dypiridamole on human platelets.". Thrombosis research 42 (3): 303–11. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(86)90259-8. PMID 3520940. Retrieved Feb 19, 2014.
- Block E, Ahmad S, Catalfamo JL, Jain MK, Apitz-Castro R (1986). "The chemistry of alkyl thiosulfinate esters. 9. Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic, and synthetic studies". Journal of the American Chemical Society 108: 7045–7055. doi:10.1021/ja00282a033.
- Block, Eric (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
- Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, et al (1992). "In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds". Planta Med 58 (5): 417–23. doi:10.1055/s-2006-961504. PMID 1470664.
- Tatarintsev AV, Vrzhets PV, Ershov DE, et al (1992). "The ajoene blockade of integrin-dependent processes in an HIV-infected cell system". Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk (11-12): 6–10. PMID 1284227.
- Torres J, Romero H (2012). "In vitro antifungal activity of ajoene on five clinical isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum". Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia 29 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1016/j.riam.2011.04.001. PMID 21635962.
- Ledezma E, Apitz-Castro R (2006). "Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent". Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia 23 (2): 75–80. doi:10.1016/s1130-1406(06)70017-1. PMID 16854181.
- Hassan HT (2004). "Ajoene (natural garlic compound): a new anti-leukaemia agent for AML therapy". Leukemia Research 28 (7): 667–671. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2003.10.008. PMID 15158086.
- Tilli CMLJ, Stavast-Kooy AJW, Vuerstaek JDD, et al. (2003). "The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis". Archives of Dermatological Research 295 (3): 117–123. doi:10.1007/s00403-003-0404-9. PMID 12756587.
- Terrasson J, Xu B, Li M, Allart S, Davignon JL, Zhang LH, Wang K, Davrinche C (2007). "Activities of Z-ajoene against tumour and viral spreading in vitro". Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 21 (3): 281–289. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00470.x. PMID 17521297.
- Givskov M, et al. (2012). "Ajoene, a sulfur rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56 (5): 2314–25. doi:10.1128/AAC.05919-11. PMID 22314537.