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In poetry, a set of extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a verse is said to stand in anacrusis (Ancient Greek: ἀνάκρουσις "pushing up"). The technique is seen Old English poetry; in lines of iambic pentameter, the technique applies a variation on the typical pentameter line causing it to appear at first glance as trochaic.
In music, an anacrusis is the note or sequence of notes which precedes the first downbeat in a bar. In the latter sense an anacrusis is often called a pickup or pickup note. Western standards for musical notation often include the recommendation that when a piece of written music begins with an anacrusis, the composer, copyist, typesetter, or printer should delete a corresponding number of beats from the written music's final bar in order to keep the number of bars in the entire piece at a whole number.
The plural of anacrusis is anacruses (see Ancient Greek grammar).
- In the song "Happy Birthday to You", the anacrusis forms the Happy and the accent is on the first syllable of Birthday.
- In The Star-Spangled Banner, the word O! in the first line is an anacrusis in both the music and the anapestic meter of the poem:
x / x x / x x / x x / Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's ear- ly light. . . ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ . . .
- At the beginning of the Beatles' "Yellow Submarine", "In the" is the anacrusis, while "town" falls on the downbeat.
- McCully, C. B. (1996). English Historical Metrics. Cambridge. p. 35. ISBN 9780521554640.
- Randel, Don Michael, ed. (2003). The Harvard Dictionary of Music (4th ed.). Cambridge: Belknap Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-674-01163-5. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- An example of this use can be seen at Preece, D. A. (1987). "Good Statistical Practice". The Statistician. D 36: 397.