Angular momentum of light
The angular momentum of light is a vector quantity that expresses the amount of dynamical rotation present in the electromagnetic field of the light. Indeed, a beam of light, while traveling approximately in a straight line, can also be rotating (or “spinning”, or “twisting”) around its own axis. This rotation, while not visible to the naked eye, can be revealed by the interaction of the light beam with matter. The total angular momentum of light (or, more generally, of the electromagnetic field and the other force fields) and matter is conserved in time. But there are actually two distinct forms of rotation of a light beam, one involving its polarization and the other its wavefront shape. These two forms of rotation are hence associated with two distinct forms of angular momentum, respectively named light spin angular momentum (SAM) and light orbital angular momentum (OAM).
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Mathematical expressions for the angular momentum of light
- 3 Exchange of spin and orbital angular momentum with matter
- 4 Possible applications of the orbital angular momentum of light
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
- 8 Further reading
It is well known that light, or more generally an electromagnetic wave, carries not only energy but also momentum, which is a characteristic property of all objects in translational motion. The existence of this momentum becomes apparent in the “radiation pressure” phenomenon, in which a light beam transfers its momentum to an absorbing or scattering object, generating a mechanical pressure on it in the process.
Less widely known is the fact that light may also carry angular momentum, which is a property of all objects in rotational motion. For example, a light beam can be rotating around its own axis while it propagates forward. Again, the existence of this angular momentum can be made evident by transferring it to small absorbing or scattering particles, which are thus subject to an optical torque.
For a light beam, one can usually distinguish two “forms of rotation”, the first associated with the dynamical rotation of the electric and magnetic fields around the propagation direction, and the second with the dynamical rotation of light rays around the main beam axis. These two rotations are associated with two forms of angular momentum, namely SAM and OAM. However this distinction becomes blurred for strongly focused or diverging beams, and in the general case only the total angular momentum of a light field can be defined. An important limiting case in which the distinction is instead clear and unambiguous is that of a “paraxial” light beam, that is a well collimated beam in which all light rays (or, more precisely, all Fourier components of the optical field) only form small angles with the beam axis.
For such a beam, SAM is strictly related with the optical polarization, and in particular with the so-called circular polarization. OAM is related with the spatial field distribution, and in particular with the wavefront helical shape.
In addition to these two terms, if the origin of coordinates is located outside the beam axis, there is a third angular momentum contribution obtained as the cross-product of the beam position and its total momentum. This third term is also called “orbital”, because it depends on the spatial distribution of the field. However, since its value is dependent from the choice of the origin, it is termed “external” orbital angular momentum, as opposed to the “internal” OAM appearing for helical beams.
Mathematical expressions for the angular momentum of light
where and are the electric and magnetic fields, respectively, is the vacuum permittivity and we are using SI units.
where is the vector potential of the magnetic field, and the i-superscripted symbols denote the cartesian components of the corresponding vectors.
These two expressions can be proved to be equivalent to each other for any electromagnetic field that vanishes fast enough outside a finite region of space. The two terms in the second expression however are physically ambiguous, as they are not gauge-invariant. A gauge-invariant version can be obtained by replacing the vector potential A and the electric field E with their “transverse” or radiative component and , thus obtaining the following expression:
A justification for taking this step is yet to be provided. The latter expression has further problems, as it can be shown that the two terms are not true angular momenta as they do not obey the correct quantum commutation rules. Their sum, that is the total angular momentum, instead does.
An equivalent but simpler expression for a monochromatic wave of frequency ω, using the complex notation for the fields, is the following:
Let us now consider the paraxial limit, with the beam axis assumed to coincide with the z axis of the coordinate system. In this limit the only significant component of the angular momentum is the z one, that is the angular momentum measuring the light beam rotation around its own axis, while the other two components are negligible.
where and denote the left and right circular polarization components, respectively.
Exchange of spin and orbital angular momentum with matter
When a light beam carrying nonzero angular momentum impinges on an absorbing particle, its angular momentum can be transferred on the particle, thus setting it in rotational motion. This occurs both with SAM and OAM. However, if the particle is not at the beam center the two angular momenta will give rise to different kinds of rotation of the particle. SAM will give rise to a rotation of the particle around its own center, i.e., to a particle spinning. OAM, instead, will generate a revolution of the particle around the beam axis. These phenomena are schematically illustrated in the figure.
In the case of transparent media, in the paraxial limit, the optical SAM is mainly exchanged with anisotropic systems, for example birefringent crystals. Indeed, thin slabs of birefringent crystals are commonly used to manipulate the light polarization. Whenever the polarization ellipticity is changed, in the process, there is an exchange of SAM between light and the crystal. If the crystal is free to rotate, it will do so. Otherwise, the SAM is finally transferred to the holder and to the Earth.
Spiral Phase Plate (SPP)
In the paraxial limit, the OAM of a light beam can be exchanged with material media that have a transverse spatial inhomogeneity. For example, a light beam can acquire OAM by crossing a spiral phase plate, with an inhomogeneous thickness (see figure).
A more convenient approach for generating OAM is based on using diffraction on a fork-like or pitchfork hologram (see figure). Holograms can be also generated dynamically under the control of a computer by using a spatial light modulator.
Another method for generating OAM is based on the SAM-OAM coupling that may occur in a medium which is both anisotropic and inhomogeneous. In particular, the so-called q-plate is a device, currently realized using liquid crystals, polymers or sub-wavelength gratings, which can generate OAM by exploiting a SAM sign-change. In this case, the OAM sign is controlled by the input polarization.
Cylindrical Mode Converters
OAM can also be generated by converting a Hermite-Gaussian beam into a Laguerre-Gaussian one by using an astigmatic system with two well-aligned cylindrical lenses placed at a specific distance (see figure) in order to introduce a well-defined relative phase between horizontal and vertical Hermite-Gaussian beams.
Possible applications of the orbital angular momentum of light
The applications of the spin angular momentum of light are undistinguishable from the innumerable applications of the light polarization and will not be discussed here. The possible applications of the orbital angular momentum of light are instead currently the subject of research. In particular, the following applications have been already demonstrated in research laboratories, although they have not yet reached the stage of commercialization:
- Orientational manipulation of particles or particle aggregates in optical tweezers
- High-bandwidth information encoding in free-space optical communication 
- Higher-dimensional quantum information encoding, for possible future quantum cryptography or quantum computation applications
- Sensitive optical detection 
- Belintante, F. J. (1940). "On the current and the density of the electric charge, the energy, the linear momentum and the angular momentum of arbitrary fields". Physica 7 (5): 449. Bibcode:1940Phy.....7..449B. doi:10.1016/S0031-8914(40)90091-X.
- Humblet, J. (1943). "Sur le moment d'impulsion d'une onde electromagnetique". Physica (Utrecht) 10 (7): 585. Bibcode:1943Phy....10..585H. doi:10.1016/S0031-8914(43)90626-3.
- He, H.; Friese, M.; Heckenberg, N.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H. (1995). "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity". Physical Review Letters 75 (5): 826–829. Bibcode:1995PhRvL..75..826H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.826. PMID 10060128.
- Simpson, N. B.; Dholakia, K.; Allen, L.; Padgett, M. J. (1997). "Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: An optical spanner". Optics Letters 22 (1): 52–4. Bibcode:1997OptL...22...52S. doi:10.1364/OL.22.000052. PMID 18183100.
- O'Neil, A. T.; MacVicar, I.; Allen, L.; Padgett, M. (2002). "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam". Physical Review Letters 88 (5): 053601. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..88e3601O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.053601. PMID 11863722.
- Beijersbergen, M. W. (1994). "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate". Optics Communication 112 (5–6): 321. Bibcode:1994OptCo.112..321B. doi:10.1016/0030-4018(94)90638-6.
- Bazhenov, V. Y.; Vasnetsov, M. V .; Soskin, M. S. (1990). "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts". JETP Letters 52 (8): 429.
- Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Soskin, M.S.; Vasnetsov, M.V. (1992). "Screw Dislocations in Light Wavefronts". Journal of Modern Optics 39 (5): 985. Bibcode:1992JMOp...39..985B. doi:10.1080/09500349214551011.
- Heckenberg, N. R.; McDuff, R.; Smith, C. P.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Wegener, M. J. (1992). "Laser beams with phase singularities". Optical and Quantum Electronics 24 (9): S951. doi:10.1007/BF01588597.
- Soskin, M.; Gorshkov, V.; Vasnetsov, M.; Malos, J.; Heckenberg, N. (1997). "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices". Phys. Rev. A 56 (5): 4064. Bibcode:1997PhRvA..56.4064S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.56.4064.
- Heckenberg, N. R.; McDuff, R; Smith, CP; White, AG (1992). "Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms". Optics Letters 17 (3): 221. Bibcode:1992OptL...17..221H. doi:10.1364/OL.17.000221. PMID 19784282.
- Marrucci, L.; Manzo, C.; Paparo, D. (2006). "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media". Physical Review Letters 96 (16): 163905. arXiv:0712.0099. Bibcode:2006PhRvL..96p3905M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.163905. PMID 16712234.
- Karimi, E.; Piccirillo, Bruno; Nagali, Eleonora; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico (2009). "Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates". Applied Physics Letters 94 (23): 231124. arXiv:0905.0562. Bibcode:2009ApPhL..94w1124K. doi:10.1063/1.3154549.
- Allen, L.; Beijersbergen, M.; Spreeuw, R.; Woerdman, J. (1992). "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes". Phys. Rev. A 45 (11): 8185–8189. Bibcode:1992PhRvA..45.8185A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185. PMID 9906912.
- Friese, M. E. J.; Enger, J; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H; Heckenberg, NR (1996). "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles". Phys. Rev. A 54 (2): 1593–1596. Bibcode:1996PhRvA..54.1593F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.54.1593. PMID 9913630.
- Gibson, G.; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles J.; Vasnetsov, Mikhail; Pas'Ko, Valeriy; Barnett, Stephen M.; Franke-Arnold, Sonja (2004). "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum". Optics Express 12 (22): 5448–56. Bibcode:2004OExpr..12.5448G. doi:10.1364/OPEX.12.005448. PMID 19484105.
- Malik, M. (2012). "Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding". Optics Express 20 (12): 13195. arXiv:1204.5781. Bibcode:2012OExpr..2013195M. doi:10.1364/OE.20.013195.
- Boyd, R.W.; Jha, Anand; Malik, Mehul; O'Sullivan, Colin; Rodenburg, Brandon; Gauthier, Daniel J. (2011). "Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon". Proc. Of SPIE. Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication IV 7948: 79480L. doi:10.1117/12.873491.
- Barreiro, J. T.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Kwiat, Paul G. (2008). "Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding". Nature Physics 4 (4): 282. doi:10.1038/nphys919.
- Foo, G.; Palacios, David M.; Swartzlander, Grover A. Jr. (2005). "Optical Vortex Coronagraph". Optics Letters 30 (24): 3308–10. Bibcode:2005OptL...30.3308F. doi:10.1364/OL.30.003308. PMID 16389814.
- Glasgow Optics Group
- Leiden Institute of Physics
- Università Di Napoli "Federico II"
- Università Di Roma "La Sapienza"
- Allen, L.; Barnett, Stephen M. & Padgett, Miles J. (2003). Optical Angular Momentum. Bristol: Institute of Physics. ISBN 978-0-7503-0901-1.
- Torres, Juan P. & Torner, Lluis (2011). Twisted Photons: Applications of Light with Orbital Angular Momentum. Bristol: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-40907-5.
- Andrews, David L. & Babiker, Mohamed (2012). The Angular Momentum of Light. Cambride: Cambridge University Press. p. 448. ISBN 9781107006348.