Jussieu was born in Lyon, the son of Christophe de Jussieu (or Dejussieu), an apothecary of some repute, who published a Nouveau traité de la theriaque (1708). Antoine studied at the university of Montpellier, and travelled with his brother Bernard through Spain, Portugal and southern France. He went to Paris in 1708. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, whom he succeeded at the Jardin du Roi, later the Jardin des Plantes, died in that year. His own original publications are not of marked importance, but he edited an edition of Tournefort's Institutions rei herbariae (3 vols., 1719), and also a posthumous work of Jacques Barrelier, Plantae per Galliam, Hispaniam, et Italiam observatae, &c. (1714). He practiced medicine, chiefly devoting himself to the very poor.