||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (March 2008)|
|Great Māori migration waka|
|Landed at||Tauranganui, Whangaparaoa|
|Iwi||Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Tapuika, Waitaha, Te Arawa|
|Settled at||Maketu ki Tongariro, Bay of Plenty|
Both the Te Arawa and Tainui canoes were formed from one great tree in Hawaiki. The canoe belonged to Tama-te-kapua of the Nga-Oho tribe. After a series of battles between his family and the high-chief Uenuku, it was decided that they should set out for the newly found land of the prized pounamu(nephrite jade). The Arawa landed in Whanagparaoa, Cape Runaway. The modern descendants of the Arawa settlers live in the Te Waiariki, Bay of Plenty Volcanic Plateau region.
The Arawa waka tradition begins in Hawaiki with a woman by the name of Te Kuraimonoa. Because of her great beauty and spirituality she was admired by Puuhaorangi, a spiritual being who later adopted the form of a human and had a sexual liaison with her. This resulted in the birth of a son named Ohomairangi. Ohomairangi, in turn, became the eponymous ancestor of the Ngāti Ohomairangi people, who much later came to be known as the Te Arawa Confederation of Tribes (Stafford, 1967, p. 1).
Seven generations after Te Kuraimonoa and Puuhaorangi, the famous Arawa ancestor Tama-te-kapua was born. He was a highly ranked chief and mischievous person, to say the least. Tama-te-kapua, whose name is inextricably linked to the Arawa waka, was a very resourceful character. Many of his well-known exploits are retold by his descendants.
Tama-te-kapua had a dog named Pootakatawhiti, which unfortunately was put to death because it transgressed the laws of tapu in the village of a neighbouring tribe. This led to Tama-te-kapua and his brother using stilts to steal fruit from village chief Uenuku's sacred poroporo (breadfruit) tree as a way to avenge this insult. However, one night, Uenuku and others caught them in this activity. They eventually both managed to escape Uenuku's clutches but a battle ensued shortly thereafter due to these events in which Houmaitawhiti and his two sons routed the army of Uenuku. After this fight, it was decided that Tama-te-kapua and others would migrate to another land (Stafford, 1967, pp 2-5).
Construction of the canoe
Eventually, a large tree was felled and from this the waka which eventually came to be known as Te Arawa was formed. The men who turned this log into a beautifully decorated canoe were Rata, Wahieroa, Ngaahue and Parata. "Hauhau-te-rangi" and "Tuutauru" (made from New Zealand greenstone brought back by Ngaahue) were the adzes they used for this time-consuming and intensive work (Stafford, 1967, p. 5). Upon completion, the waka was given the name Ngaa raakau kotahi puu a Atua Matua (also known as Ngaa raakau maatahi puu a Atua Matua).
The waka was eventually completed and berthed in Whenuakura Bay while Tama-te-kapua, in his capacity as rangatira (chief) of the canoe, set about trying to find a tohunga (priest) for the journey. Ngātoro-i-rangi and his wife Kearoa were tricked by Tama-te-kapua to board the canoe to perform the necessary appeasement incantations to the gods prior to the canoe's departure. However, while they were on board, Tama-te-kapua signalled his men to quickly set sail, and before Ngātoro-i-rangi and his wife could respond they were far out to sea (Stafford, 1967, p. 14).
Voyage to Aotearoa
One of the more dramatic stories pertaining to the voyage to Aotearoa occurred because Tama-te-kapua became desirous of Kearoa. Ngātoro-i-rangi noticed the glint in Tama-te-kapua's eye and took precautions to protect his wife during the night while he was on deck navigating by the stars. This was done by tying one end of a cord to her hair and holding the other end in his hand. However, Tama-te-kapua untied the cord from Kearoa's hair and attached it to the bed instead. He then made love to her, following this pattern over a number of nights. One night however, he was nearly discovered in the act by Ngātoro-i-rangi, but just managed to escape. Unfortunately in his haste he forgot the cord. Ngātoro-i-rangi noticed this and therefore knew that Tama-te-kapua had been with Kearoa. He was furious and, in his desire to gain revenge, raised a huge whirlpool in the sea named Te korokoro-o-te-Parata ("The throat of Te Parata"). The waka was about to be lost with all on board but Ngātoro-i-rangi eventually took pity and caused the seas to become calm (Steedman, pp 99-100).
One incident that occurred during this drama was that all the kūmara carried on the waka were lost overboard, save for a few that were in a small kete being clutched by Whakaotirangi (Stafford, 1967, p. 15). Immediately after the calming of the seas, a shark (known as an arawa) was seen in the water. Ngātoro-i-rangi immediately renamed the waka Te Arawa, after this shark, which then accompanied the waka to Aotearoa, acting in the capacity of a kai-tiaki (guardian).
The Arawa waka then continued on to Aotearoa without incident, finally sighting land at Whangaparaoa where feather headdresses were foolishly cast away due to greed and due to the beauty of the pohutukawa bloom. Upon landfall, an argument took place with members of the Tainui canoe over a beached whale and the ownership thereof. Tama-te-kapua again resorted to trickery and took possession of it despite rightful claim of the Tainui. . The canoe then travelled north up the coast to the Coromandel Peninsula, where Tama-te-kapua first sighted the mountain Moehau, a place he was later to make home. Heading south again, it finally came to rest at Maketu, where it was beached and stood until being burnt by Raumati of Taranaki some years later (Stafford, 1967, pp 17-18, 47).
Some items of note that were brought to Aotearoa on the Arawa, other than the precious kūmara saved by Whakaotirangi, was a tapu kōhatu (stone) left by Ngātoro-i-rangi on the island Te Poito o te Kupenga a Taramainuku just off the coast of Cape Colville. This stone held the mauri[disambiguation needed] to protect the Te Arawa peoples and their descendants from evil times (Stafford, 1967, p17). In addition, the waka brought over two gods, one called Itupaoa, which was represented by a roll of tapa, and another stone carving now possibly buried at Mokoia Island, Lake Rotorua (Stafford, 1967, pp 11-12).
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- Craig, R.D. Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology (Greenwood Press: New York, 1989), 24.
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- Stafford, D.M. (1967). Te Arawa: A History of the Arawa People. A.H. & A.W. Reed. Rotorua, New Zealand.
- Steedman, J.A.W. He Toto: Te Ahu Matua a Nga Tupuna. (Date of publication and publisher unknown)
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