Arctoidea

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Arctoids
Temporal range: Eocene - Holocene, 46–0Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Infraorder: Arctoidea

Arctoidea is an infraorder of extinct and extant mostly carnivorous mammals which include the extinct group Hemicyonidae (dog-bears), and extant groups Musteloidea (weasels, raccoons, skunks, red pandas), Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions), and Ursidae (bears), found in all continents from the Eocene, 46 million years ago ago, to the present.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Arctoidea was named by Flower (1869). It was reranked as the unranked clade Arctoidea by Hunt (2001), Hunt (2002) and Hunt (2002); it was reranked as the infraorder Arctoidea by Koretsky (2001), Zhai et al. (2003) and Labs Hochstein (2007). It was assigned to Carnivora by Flower (1883), Barnes (1987), Barnes (1988), Carroll (1988), Barnes (1989), Barnes (1992), Hunt (2001), Hunt (2002) and Hunt (2002); and to Caniformia by Tedford (1976), Bryant (1991), Wang and Tedford (1992), Tedford et al. (1994), Koretsky (2001), Zhai et al. (2003), Wang et al. (2005), Owen (2006), Peigné et al. (2006) and Labs Hochstein (2007).[2][3][4]

Family tree[edit]

The cladogram of Arctoidea is as follows:[citation needed]

   Caniformia   

Amphicyonidae



Canidae


   Arctoidea   
   Ursoidea   

Hemicyonidae



Ursidae




Pinnipedia

Enaliarctidae



   

Phocidae



   

Otariidae



Odobenidae





   Musteloidea   
   

Ailuridae



   

Mephitidae



   

Procyonidae



Mustelidae








References[edit]

  1. ^ Paleobiology Database: Arctoidea Basic info.
  2. ^ R. M. Hunt. 2001. Small Oligocene amphicyonids from North America (Paradaphoenus, Mammalia, Carnivora). American Museum Novitates 3331:1-20
  3. ^ I. Koretsky. 2001. Morphology and systematics of Miocene Phocinae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Paratethys and the North Atlantic region. Geologica Hungarica Series Palaeontologica 54:1-109
  4. ^ J. Labs Hochstein. 2007. A new species of Zodiolestes (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from the early Miocene of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(2):532-534