Avīci

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Not to be confused with Avicii.
Avīci hell, 13th century. Collected in Japan.

In Buddhism, Avīci (Sanskrit and Pali for "without waves" — Japanese and Chinese: 無間地獄, Wújiàn dìyù and 阿鼻地獄, Ābí dìyù) or Avichi, is the lowest Level of the Naraka or "hell" realm, into which the dead who have committed grave misdeeds may be reborn.[1] It is said to be a cube 20,000 yojanas (120,000 to 300,000 kilometres) to a side, buried deep underneath the earth (the diameter of the earth is approximately 13,000 km).[2] Avīci is often translated into English as "interminable" or "incessant",[3] due to the idea that those beings which have been sent there languish there eternally. The other hells function more like Purgatory, where after perhaps a few aeons of suffering, one might be reborn as some sort of lowly life-form in a somewhat less horrible place; but, those sent to Avīci Hell are thought to be hopeless of any respite.

Avīci-meriting sins[edit]

There are various evil acts which can lead one to be committed to the eternal torments of the Avīci Hell. People reborn in Avīci generally have committed one or more of the Five Grave Offenses:[4][3]

  • Intentionally murdering one's father
  • Intentionally murdering one's mother
  • Killing an Arhat (enlightened being)
  • Shedding the blood of a Buddha
  • Creating a schism within the Sangha, the community of Buddhist monks and nuns.

Eternity in Hell[edit]

Buddhism teaches that rebirth into Naraka is temporary, while the offenders works off the karma they garnered in life. Rebirth into Avīci hell is not eternal. However, the Lotus Sutra provides an example of humans who have to endure long-term suffering in Avīci.[5][6] Some sutras state that rebirth in Avīci will be for innumerable kalpas (aeons). When the offender passes away after one kalpa, it is reborn in the same place, suffering for another kalpa, and on and on until it has exhausted its bad karma.[7] For this reason, Avīci hell is also known as the "non-stop way" (無間道).

Nichiren famously wrote that Buddhist monks who ignored the passages in the Lotus Sutra, which claimed its superiority over other sutras would fall into the Avīci hell.[8] Outside of Nichiren, it is extremely rare for a Buddhist monk to condemn one to Avīci hell, although the Lotus Sutra itself states "when his [those who slander] life comes to an end, he will enter the Avichi Hell."

Rebirth in Avīci (or any lower realm for that matter) should be seen as a process of purification rather than a form of punishment as there is no supernatural being that determines anyone's fate of its own will[9] and everyone is responsible for their own actions and their consequences: "[...] beings are owners of kamma, heir to kamma, born of kamma, related through kamma, and have kamma as their arbitrator. Kamma is what creates distinctions among beings in terms of coarseness & refinement."[10] Thus, being reborn in Avīci is purely the inevitable result of one's evil deeds and not the decision of, for example, a malevolent deity.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gray, David B. (2007). "Compassionate Violence? On the Ethical Implications of Tantric Buddhist Ritual". Journal of Buddhist Ethics 14: 238–271. 
  2. ^ Sadakata, Akira (1997). Buddhist cosmology: philosophy and origins, Tokyo: Kōsei Pub., p. 47
  3. ^ a b Buswell, Robert E. (2003). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 86. 
  4. ^ Singh, N.K.; Mishra, A.P. (2010). Global Encyclopaedia of Indian Philosophy. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 50. ISBN 8182202949. 
  5. ^ Phyllis Granoff; Koichi Shinohara (2012). Sins and Sinners: Perspectives from Asian Religions. BRILL. p. 139. ISBN 978-90-04-22946-4. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Kubo Tsugunari, Yuyama Akira (tr.). The Lotus Sutra. Revised 2nd ed. Berkeley, Calif. : Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2007. ISBN 978-1-886439-39-9, p. 268
  7. ^ Shengyan (2002). The Sword of Wisdom: Commentaries on the Song of Enlightenment, Elmhurst, N.Y. : Dharma Drum Publications, p.159
  8. ^ Mujū Ichien (30 August 1985). Sand and Pebbles: The Tales of Muju Ichien, A Voice for Pluralism in Kamakura Buddhism. SUNY Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-88706-060-1. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Itivuttaka: This Was Said by the Buddha
  10. ^ Cula-kammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Analysis of Action