In Basque mythology, Basajaun (plural: basajaunak) is a huge, hairy hominid dwelling in the woods. They were thought to build megaliths, protect flocks of livestock, and teach skills such as agriculture and ironworking to humans. Given the arrival of the first Basques (c. 80,000 BC) and the overlap of the then-indigenous humans, the Neanderthals (c. 600,000 years ago to 30,000 BC), some theories have arisen as to whether the Basajuanak stories originated out of proto-Basque interaction with the Neanderthals.
- Vinson, Folklore du Pays Basque (1883), p. 43. J. M. of Barandiaran, Eusko-Folklore (1922); Basque Mythology (1960), pp. 75–76.