Bicycle helmet laws by country
The wearing of bicycle helmets, and attitudes towards their use vary around the world. Compulsory use of helmets has often been proposed and is the subject of much dispute (see Bicycle helmet laws), based largely on considerations of overall public health. Only two countries (Australia and New Zealand) currently require and enforce universal use of helmets by cyclists. In some other jurisdictions, partial rules apply - for children, in certain states or sub-national areas, or under other limited conditions.
Legislation by country
Australia was the first country to enact mandatory bicycle helmet use for all cyclists. Mexico City has had mandatory cycle helmet laws repealed, and in Italy the Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicycletta managed to block a proposed helmet law. While bicycle helmets are not required to be worn by law in the United Kingdom the British Medical Association advocates the compulsory use of helmets. Cyclists' Touring Club, the largest cycling advocacy organisation in the UK, consider helmet wearing as personal choice rather than being mandated by legislation. In 2002 an attempt was made to introduce bicycle helmet legislation in Poland but it was opposed by cyclists' organisations.
|Austria||2011||Under 12 years of age only.|
1995 - New Brunswick
|In Manitoba applies to cyclists under 16 years of age.
In 2007 the Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) city council voted against mandatory helmet use.
|Czech Republic||Under 15 years of age only. Revised to under 18 with effect from July 2006.|
|Croatia||2008||Under 16 years of age only.|
|Finland||2003||Not enforced (no fine).|
|Hong Kong||No requirement||In 2009, Transport Secretary announced that government had no intention of introducing mandatory helmet law, based partly on "international views that a mandatory requirement may lead to a reduction in cycling activities."|
|Hungary||2010||Wearing a helmet increases the speed limit for bicycles outside populated areas from 40 km/h to 50 km/h. |
|Iceland||1998||Under 15 years of age only. Iceland has considered - but not pursued - extending its helmet law to adults.|
|Israel||2007||Not enforced. Starting from 2011, only applies under 16 years of age, in interurban ways and during sport events.|
|Japan||2008||Under 13 years age only.|
|Jersey||2010||Under 18 years of age only.|
|Mexico||Mexico City repealed mandatory helmet laws in 2010.|
|The Netherlands||No requirement|||
|Portugal||2004||As of 2005 a time frame for application of the legislation had not been developed.|
|Singapore||Only power-assisted bicycle on a road|
|Slovakia||Compulsory for all cyclists only outside populated areas, for cyclists under 15 years of age anywhere.|
|Slovenia||2000||Under 15 years of age only.|
|South Africa||2004||Compulsory for all cyclists but in practice the law is not enforced. No fine had been agreed.|
|South Korea||2006||Under 13 years of age only|
|Spain||2004||Required on interurban routes except when going uphill or in very hot weather, or for professional cyclists.|
|Sweden||2005||Only applicable to children under 15 years old. No penalty for children cycling alone who do not obey the law. Also applies to Segway use.|
|UAE||2010 - Dubai|||
|United Kingdom||No requirement|||
|United States||Varies by state|
- Helmet Laws for Bicycle Riders, (pro-compulsion) Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute
- "Safety in numbers". Homepage. Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation.
- Curnow, W. J. "Bicycle Helmets: A Scientific Evaluation" in Anton De Smet (2008). Transportation Accident Analysis and Prevention. Commack, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1-60456-288-9.
- "Examples of successful campaigns". European Cyclists Federation. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Legislative and non-legislative interventions". British Medical Association. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "CTC policy handbook". Cyclists' Touring Club. March 2004. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Avenoso, Antonio; Beckmann, Jörg (2005). The Safety of Vulnerable Road Users in the Southern, Eastern and Central European Countries (The "SEC Belt"). Brussels: European Transport Safety Council. ISBN 90-76024-18-9.
- Ontario ministry of transportation, retrieved 4 March 2012
- Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation, retrieved 4 March 2012
- CBC Online 1 Apr 2013
- "City council decides unanimously against helmet proposal". Postmedia News. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Helmet laws: Czech Republic, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation
- "Zakon o sigurnosti prometa na cestama". Narodne Novine. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- (Hong Kong) Written reply to Legco by Secretary for Transport and Housing, Ms Eva Cheng, 4 June 2008
- "Bicycle Helmet Laws". Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. 5 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Helmet laws: Iceland, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation
- Helmet laws: Spain, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation
- Helmet laws: Sweden, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation
- Macpherson, A; Spinks, A (2007). Bicycle helmet legislation for the uptake of helmet use and prevention of head injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 (2). The Cochrane Collaboration. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005401.pub2.