Bluegill

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For the exoatmospheric nuclear test, refer to Bluegill (nuclear test).
Bluegill
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
Genus: Lepomis
Species: L. macrochirus
Binomial name
Lepomis macrochirus
Rafinesque, 1819

The bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a species of freshwater fish sometimes referred to as bream, brim, or copper nose. It is a member of the sunfish family Centrarchidae of the order Perciformes. Lepomis, in Greek, means "scaled gill cover" and macrochirus means large hand, which may be a reference to its body shape. A defining characteristic of the bluegill is the bright blue edging visible on its gill rakers.[1]

The bluegill is the state fish of Illinois.[2]

Range and distribution[edit]

The bluegill or bluegulli occurs naturally in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains from coastal Virginia to Florida, west to Texas and northern Mexico, and north to western Minnesota and western New York. Today they have been transported almost everywhere else in North America, and have also been introduced into Europe, South Africa, Zimbabwe,[3] Asia, South America, and Oceania. Bluegill have also been found in the Chesapeake Bay, indicating they can tolerate up to 1.8% salinity.[4]

In some locations where they have been transplanted, they are considered pests: trade in the species is prohibited in Germany and Japan. In the case of Japan, bluegill were presented to the then-crown prince, Akihito in 1960 as a gift by Richard J. Daley, mayor of Chicago. The prince, in turn, donated the fish to fishery research agencies in Japan from which they escaped, becoming an invasive species which has wreaked havoc with native species, specifically in Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture. The emperor has since apologized.[5]

Physical description[edit]

Bluegill from Lake Lanier, Landrum, SC. (Caught & Released, June 14, 2004)

The bluegill is noted for the darkened spot that it has on the posterior edge of the gills and base of the dorsal fin. The sides of its head and chin are a dark shade of blue. It usually contains 5-9 vertical bars on the sides of its body, but these stripes are not always distinct. It has a yellowish breast and abdomen, with the breast of the breeding male being a bright orange.[4] The bluegill has three anal spines, ten to 12 anal fin rays, six to 13 dorsal fin spines, 11 to 12 dorsal rays, and 12 to 13 pectoral rays. They are characterized by their deep, flattened, laterally compressed bodies. They have a terminal mouth, ctenoid scales, and a lateral line that is arched upward anteriorly.[6] The bluegill typically ranges in size from four to 12 inches, and reaches a maximum size just over 16 inches. The bluegill is most commonly related to the orangespotted sunfish and the redear sunfish, but different in a distinct spot at or near the base of the soft dorsal fin.[4]The world record bluegill weighed 2.15 kilograms (4 pounds 12 ounces) and was caught on April 9, 1950 by T. S. Hudson in Ketona Lake which is only a few miles from downtown Birmingham, Alabama.

Habitat[edit]

Bluegill live in the shallow waters of many lakes and ponds, along with slow-moving areas of streams and small rivers. They prefer water with many aquatic plants, and hide within fallen logs or water weeds. They can often be found around weed beds, where they search for food or spawn.[7] In the summer, adults move to deep, open water where they suspend just below the surface and feed on plankton and other aquatic creatures. Bluegill try to spend most of their time in water from 60 to 80 °F (16 to 27 °C), and tend to have a home range of about 320 square feet (30 m2) during nonreproductive months. They enjoy heat, but do not like direct sunlight - they typically live in deeper water, but will linger near the water surface in the morning to stay warm.[4] Bluegill are usually found in schools of 10 to 20 fish, and these schools will often include other panfish, such as crappie, pumpkinseeds, and smallmouth bass.[1]

Ecology[edit]

Young bluegills' diet consists of rotifers and water fleas. The adult diet consists of aquatic insect larvae (mayflies, caddisflies, dragonflies), but can also include crayfish, leeches, snails, and other small fish.[8] Their diet can also include the waxworm and nightcrawler that can be provided for them by anglers.[citation needed] If food is scarce, bluegill will also feed on aquatic vegetation, and if scarce enough, will even feed on their own eggs or offspring. As bluegill spend a great deal of time near the surface of water, they can also feed on popping bugs and dry flies. Most bluegills feed during daylight hours, with a feeding peak being observed in the morning and evening (with the major peak occurring in the evening).[1] Feeding location tends to be a balance between food abundance and predator abundance. Bluegill use gill rakers and bands of small teeth to ingest their food. During summer months, bluegills generally consume 35 percent of their body weight each week. To capture prey, bluegills use a suction system in which they accelerate water into their mouth. Prey comes in with this water. Only a limited amount of water is able to be suctioned, so the fish must get within 1.75 centimeters of the prey.[8]

In turn, bluegill are prey to many larger species, including largemouth bass, muskellunge, turtles, northern pike, yellow perch, walleye, catfish, and even larger bluegill. Herons and otters have also been witnessed[citation needed] catching bluegill in shallow water. However, the shape of the fish makes them hard to swallow.[1]

Adaptations[edit]

Bluegills have the ability to travel and change directions at high speeds by means of synchronized fin movements. They use notched caudal fins, soft dorsal fins, body undulations, and pectoral fins to move forward. Having a notched caudal fin allows them to accelerate quickly. The speed of their forward motion depends on the strength of which they abduct or adduct fins. The flat, slender body of the bluegill lowers water resistance and allows the bluegills to cut effectively through water. The large, flexible pectoral fins allow the fish to decelerate quickly. This superior maneuverability allows the bluegill to forage and escape predators very successfully. Bluegills have a lateral line system, as well as inner ears, that act as receptors for vibration and pressure changes. However, bluegills rely heavily on sight to feed, especially in their foraging. Optimal vision occurs in the daylight hours. The mouth of the bluegill is very small and requires the use of the pharynx to suck in prey.[9]

Reproduction and lifestyle[edit]

Spawning season for bluegills starts late in May and extends into August. The peak of the spawning season usually occurs in June in waters of 67 to 80°F. The male bluegills arrive first at the mating site. They will make a spawning bed of six to 12 inches in diameter in shallow water, clustering as many as 50 beds together. The males scoop out these beds in gravel or sand. Males tend to be very protective and chase everything away from their nests, especially other male bluegills. Some bluegills, regardless of their small size, will even attack snorkelers if they approach the edge of the nest. As a female approaches, the male will begin circling and making grunting noises. The motion and sound of the males seem to attract the females. Females are very choosy and will usually pick males with larger bodies and "ears", making larger size a desirable trait for males to have. If the female enters the nest, both the male and female will circle each other, with the male expressing very aggressive behavior toward the female. If the female stays, the pair will enter the nest and come to rest in the middle. With the male in an upright posture, the pair will touch bellies, quiver, and spawn. These actions are repeated at irregular intervals several times in a row. Once the spawning is done, the male will chase the female out of the nest and guard the eggs.[1] The fertilization process is entirely external. The male's sperm combines with the female's eggs in the water. Smaller males will often hide in nearby weeds and dart into the nest as they attempt to fertilize the eggs. They then quickly dart away.[4] The size of the female plays a large role in how many eggs will be produced. A small female can produce as few as 1,000 eggs, and a large, healthy female can produce up to 100,000 eggs. The male continues to watch over the nest until the larvae are able to hatch and swim away on their own. The bluegill generally begins its spawning career at one year of age, but has been found to spawn as early as four months of age under favorable conditions. Bluegills can live up to 11 years.[10] Anglers find spawning season to be a very successful time to fish for bluegills, as they aggressively attack anything, including a hook, that comes near.[1]

The growth of the bluegill is very rapid in the first three years, but slows considerably once the fish reaches maturity. Many fish reach five to eight years old, and in extreme cases, can live 11 years.[9]

Fishing[edit]

Bluegill caught in an Alabama pond

Bluegills are popular panfish, caught with live bait such as worms or crickets, grasshoppers, flies, pieces of corn, small crankbaits, spinners, American cheese pushed around a hook, maggots, small frogs, bread, or even a bare hook. They mostly bite on vibrant colors like orange, yellow, green, or red, chiefly at dawn and dusk. They are noted for seeking out underwater vegetation for cover; their natural diet consists largely of small invertebrates and very small fish. The bluegill itself is also occasionally used as bait for larger game fish species, such as blue catfish, flathead catfish and largemouth bass.[11]

Fishermen are sometimes able to use polarized sunglasses to see through water and find bluegills' spawning beds. Bluegill have a rather bold character; many have no fear of humans, eating food dropped into the water, and a population in Canada's Lake Scugog will even allow themselves to be stroked by human observers. Because of their size and the method of cooking them, bluegills are often called panfish.[12]

Although the majority of bluegills are caught on live bait—particularly worms, leeches, grubs and crickets—they can also be taken on tiny artificials such as jigs and spinnerbaits. They will rise to small poppers, sponge bugs and dry flies.[13] They will also take wet flies, nymphs, and small streamers.

In the aquarium[edit]

Bluegill can be kept with great success in the aquarium. Obtaining a fish of 1-2.5 inches long is best as it can adapt well to the aquaria. However, even so you must keep them in a quarantine tank for at least 2-3 weeks to watch for parasites. If everything seems in order you can than move it into the main tank. Tank sizes are 30 gallons for a pair or a 20 gallon for one. If caught at a young age you can feed them on flakes, pellets, and occasionally some small live food. Make sure to keep plenty of plants whether real or fake for added security. You also need to make sure to have at least one hiding spot per fish. The bottom substrate should be either sand or gravel as it likes to dig around and make nests. tank mates should be similar robust fish such as perch, bass too small for the bluegill to eat, convict cichlids, jack Dempsey cichlids, green terrors, and other similar sized cichlids. However, including any of these fish will require you to up your tank size to a 55 gallon or larger depending on the fish. Plecostamus, bullhead catfish, and redtail catfish can also be added as well. Overall, bluegill are a fun easy fish to keep in your aquarium to add a flare of the wild to your household.

Management[edit]

Bluegills play an important role in pond and lake management to keep crustacean and insect populations low, as a single bluegill population may eat up to six times its own weight in just one summer.[9]

Bluegills are delicious fish but are often overlooked due to their small size. This may be due to the fact that their growth in ponds may become stunted due to high populations, their small bones, and lack of a developed commercial market.

Bluegills commonly overpopulate ponds and their growth may become stunted due to their high reproductive capacity and voracious appetites. Predation on the bluegill or feeding are two options to prevent stunting of bluegill.

In smaller lakes and ponds fish growth can often become stunted due to over population. In order to reduce the chances of overpopulation the predation of fry and juvenile fish must be high. This is often achieved by reducing weeds in shallower water that offer cover and prevent predation by other species. Largemouth bass are often used as a suitable predator for bluegill fry. If largemouth bass are used to limit the juvenile recruitment of bluegill larger bass over 14" must be removed from the ponds since largemouth bass are cannibalistic and larger bass will dominate eating both smaller bass and larger bluegill without limiting juvenile recruitment of bluegill as efficiently. Flathead, blue, and channel catfish are a poor choice of a predator in ponds since they have large mouths to hunt fish of all sizes. Predation in many ponds by bass is difficult due to the introduction of the invasive plant species eurasian milfoil. The eurasian milfoil is a fast growing plant that provides cover for bluegill from predators.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Paulson, Nicole, and Jay T. Hatch. "Fishes of Minnesota-Bluegill." GC 1112 Welcome. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 18 June 2004. Web. 04 May 2011. http://hatch.cehd.umn.edu/research/fish/fishes/bluegill.html
  2. ^ Illinois State Symbols and Their History
  3. ^ https://www.newsday.co.zw/2014/01/11/cat-mouse-game-chivero/
  4. ^ a b c d e Schultz, Ken. Ken Schultz's Field Guide to Freshwater Fish. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2004
  5. ^ "Japan in culinary offensive to stop spread of US fish" report by Justin McCurry from Tokyo in The Guardian November 26, 2007
  6. ^ Sublette, J. E., M. D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 393 pp
  7. ^ Lee, D. S. 1980. Lepomis macrochirus (Rafinesque 1819), Bluegill. pp. 597 in D. S. Lee, et al. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. N. C. State Mus. Nat. Hist., Raleigh, 854 pp
  8. ^ a b Carlander, K.D. 1997. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Volume 2. Life history Data on centrarchid fishes of the United States and Canada. Iowa State Univ.Press, Iowa.
  9. ^ a b c Swingle, H. S. and E. V. Smith. 1943. Factors affecting the reproduction of bluegill bream and large black bass in ponds. Ala. Poly-Tech. Inst. Agr. Exp. Stn. Circ. 87:8
  10. ^ Sternberg, Dick. Freshwater Gamefish of North America. 1987.
  11. ^ Coble, Daniel W. "Effects of Angling on Bluegill Populations: Management Implications." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8.3 (1988): 277
  12. ^ "Fishes of Minnesota: Bluegill Minnesota DNR." Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: Minnesota DNR. Web. 04 May 2011.
  13. ^ "Bluegill." North American Fishing Club. N.p., 8 Sept. 2010. Web. 2 July 2012. <http://www.fishingclub.com/my-nafc/fishing-wiki/topic/bluegill>.