Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon
Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon (1782 – August 21, 1853) was a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. Serving throughout, he subsequently chose to go into exile on the British governed island of St Helena with the ex-emperor after Napoleon's second abdication.
It has been alleged that he poisoned Napoleon.
Early life and career
Montholon was born in Paris and was trained for a military career from a young age. In his tenth year he shared in the expedition of Admiral Laurent Truguet to the coast of Sardinia. Entering the army in 1797, he rose with rapidity and avowed himself, when chef d'escadron in Paris at the time of the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (November 1799), entirely devoted to Bonaparte.
He served in several of the ensuing campaigns, participating in the Battle of Jena (1806) and distinguishing himself at the battle of Aspern-Essling (May 1809) where he was wounded. At the end of that campaign on the Danube he received the title of count and remained in close attendance on Napoleon, who confided to him several important duties. He was chosen for a mission to discuss diplomatic matters with the Austrian commander Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este at Würzburg among others. 
At the time of the first abdication of Napoleon at Fontainebleau (April 11, 1814), Montholon was one of the few generals who advocated one more attempt to rally the French troops for the overthrow of the allies.
In exile with Napoleon
After the second abdication (June 22, 1815) he with his wife, Albine de Montholon, accompanied the emperor to Rochefort, where Napoleon and his friends finally adopted the proposal, which emanated from Count Las Cases, that he should throw himself on the generosity of the British nation and surrender to H.M.S. Bellerophon. Montholon afterwards, at Plymouth, asserted that the conduct of Captain Maitland of the Bellerophon had been altogether honourable, and that the responsibility for the failure must rest largely with Las Cases.
Montholon and his wife accompanied the ex-emperor to Saint Helena. Napoleon chiefly dictated to Montholon the notes on his career which form so interesting, though far from trustworthy, a commentary on the events of the first part of his life. Montholon is known to have despised and flouted Las Cases, though in later writings he affected to laud his services to Napoleon. With Gourgaud, who was no less vain and sensitive than himself, there was a standing feud which would have led to a duel but for the express prohibition of Napoleon.
Montholon had to spend many years in what is now Belgium, and in 1840 acted as "chief of staff" in the absurd "expedition" conducted by Louis Napoleon from London to Boulogne. He was condemned to imprisonment at Ham, but was released in 1847 thanks to the efforts of Gourgaud who was then in favour with the administration; he then retired to England and published the Récits de la captivité de Napoleon a Ste Hélène. In 1849 he became one of the deputies for the Legislative Assembly under the Second French Republic.
Those who believe that Napoleon was murdered by poisoning now regard Montholon as the most likely suspect. This accusation has been forcefully argued by Ben Weider and Sten Forshufvud, and accepted by Napoleon's recent biographer, Alan Schom.
Doubts on military service
Montholon claimed he had won a sword of honour during 1800's Hohenlinden campaign but in fact, he was not at the campaign as he was facing expulsion from the army for corruption at the time. He was reintegrated into the army thanks to influential friends and family, including his brother-in-law Marshal Macdonald.
In 1809 Montholon claimed to be wounded at the Battle of Jena, an event which his commanding officer swore did not happen in a later affidavit. As well, during Napoleon's first exile in 1814, Montholon lost his commission under the Royalists after only seven days, after he was charged with taking money meant to pay his troops in Clermont-Ferrand.
Of Montholon's own writings the only one of note is De l'Armée française (1834).
- Chisholm 1911.
- See Assassination at St. Helena Revisited
- read the following article on this topic Why was Montholon nicknamed the Liar?
- Schom, Alan (1997). "Napoleon Bonaparte". ISBN 9780060929589. Harper Collins.
- See Recueil de pieces authentiques sur le captif de Ste Hélène: suivi de lettres de MM ... le General Montholon, etc. (Paris, 1821)
- Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de France sous Napoleon (ed. Gourgaud and Montholon, Paris, 1823; Eng. ed., London, 1823; new ed., Paris, 1905)
- Recits de la captivite de l'empereur Napoleon a Ste Hélène (2 vols., Paris, 1847)
- Marquise de Montholon's Souvenirs de Ste Hélène, 1815-16 (Paris, 1901).
- History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena by Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon vol. I at archive.org
- History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena by Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon vol. II at archive.org
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.