Cinchona pubescens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona.pubescens01.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Cinchona
Species: C. pubescens
Binomial name
Cinchona pubescens
Vahl, 1790

Cinchona pubescens, also known as Red cinchona and quinine ((Spanish) Cascarilla, cinchona; (Portuguese) Quina-do-Amazonas, quineira), is native to Central and South America. It is known as a medicinal plant for its bark's high quinine content- and has similar uses to Cinchona officinalis in the production of quinine, most famously used for treatment of malaria.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Cinchona pubescens has the widest distribution of all Cinchona species, with the native range spanning Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.[2] In Ecuador it is distributed within an altitude from 300–3,900 metres (980–12,800 ft).

Invasive species[edit]

It has become an invasive species where planted outside of its native range, especially on tropical climate islands.[3]

In the Galapagos it has become a dominant species in the formerly shrub dominated Miconia and Fern-Sedge zones [4] on Santa Cruz Island.[5] It has been subject to control in the Galapagos National Park [6] to reduce its impacts using a variety of methods.[7] However, controlling it over its total range on Santa Cruz island would cost several million US dollars according to research done through the Charles Darwin Foundation.[8]

It is also invasive in Hawaii, on Maui and the Big Island [9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Kinyuy et al. 1993)
  2. ^ (Acosta-Solis 1945; Missouri Botanical Garden specimen database 2002) Its distribution is at well documented by the Missouri Botanic Garden's Nomenclatural Data Base w3TROPICOS
  3. ^ (Invasive Species Specialist Group
  4. ^ (sensu Wiggins and Porter 1971)
  5. ^ Buddenhagen & Yánez 2005; Buddenhagen et al. 2004; Jäger 1999; Kastdalen 1982; Lawesson 1990; Macdonald et al. 1988; Mauchamp 1997; Tye 2000; (and see more references below)
  6. ^ http://www.galapagospark.org/png/index.php
  7. ^ http://wssa.allenpress.com/pdfserv/i0890-037X-018-05-1194.pdf Buddenhagen et al. 2004
  8. ^ http://www.darwinfoundation.org/en/ (Buddenhagen and Yanez 2005)
  9. ^ Invasive species in Hawaii.

Sources[edit]