Conference of Badasht
The Conference of Badasht was an instrumental meeting of the leading Bábís in June–July 1848.
In June–July 1848 over a period of 3 weeks, a number of Bábí leaders met in the village of Badasht at a conference, organized in part and financed by Bahá'u'lláh, centered on Táhirih and Quddús, that set in motion the public existence and promulgation of the Bábí religion. Around eighty men and Táhirih attended the conference. The conference is considered by Bábís and Bahá'ís as a signal moment that demonstrated that Islamic Sharia law had been abrogated and superseded by Bábí law, as well as a key demonstration of the thrust of raising the social position of women.
After the Báb's arrest in early 1848, Mulla Muhammad Ali Barfurushi, aka Quddús, had sought to raise the Black Standard in Mashad. However the city forced the Bábís out, (it was later officially raised by Mullá Husayn-i-Bushru'i.) At the same time Táhirih had expressed an interest in making a pilgrimage to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Azarbaijan where the Báb, founder of the Bábí faith, was being held. That proved untenable. Instead, Bahá'u'lláh made arrangements for Táhirih to leave Tehran to join forces with Quddús. Along the way they encountered Quddús and together they settled on Badasht for the location for a meeting.
The three key individuals each had a garden:
In one account the purpose of the conference was to initiate a complete break in the Babi community with the Islamic past. The same account notes that a secondary reason was to find a way to free the Bab from the prison of Chiriq, and it was Tahirih who pushed the notion that there should be an armed rebellion to save the Bab and create the break. Another source states that there was no doubt that prominent Babi leaders wanted to plan an armed revolt. It seems that much of what Tahirih was pushing was beyond what most of the other Babis were about to accept.
Bábís were divided somewhat between those that viewed the movement as a break with Islam, centered on Táhirih, and those with a more cautious approach, centered on Quddús. Scholars and chroniclers of the time characterize the conference as determined by the differences and resolution between Quddús and Táhirih. Many sources note the role of Bahá'u'lláh in resolving the issues, and resolving them basically in favor of Táhirih. It was in fact at the conference that the name Táhirih - "The Pure" was introduced by Bahá'u'lláh, as well as other names for individuals. According to Nabíl-i-A`zam all three were named thusly by Bahá'u'lláh at the conference. Indeed all attendees may have been given new names.
The major events included, as an act of symbolism, Táhirih taking off her traditional veil in front of an assemblage of men on one occasion and brandished a sword on another. The unveiling caused shock and consternation amongst the men present as it was a very visible challenge to the cultural/religious ways of seeing an esteemed woman. Prior to this, many had regarded Táhirih as the epitome of purity and the spiritual return of Fatima Zahra, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad. Many screamed in horror at the sight, and one man was so horrified that he cut his own throat and, with blood pouring from his neck, fled the scene. Táhirih then arose and began a speech on the break from Islam. She quoted from the Quran, "verily, amid gardens and rivers shall the pious dwell in the seat of truth, in the presence of the potent King" as well as proclaiming herself the Word the Qa'im would utter on the day of judgement.
The circumstances of the conference in a Persian Paradise garden along with Táhirih's address to the audience underscored the difference between Islamic theology and practice: that Islamic paradise, the perfect condition requiring human participation and not just reflection, differed from the rules of Sharia and thus the rules were derived from human interpretation of the divine claiming an authority it did not have - that a place of public discourse like a garden was forbidden to unveiled women, whereas paradise in action in fact required it. This became the key way of differentiating the dispensation of Islam from the events in the garden
According to Moojan Momen the accusation that there was some immorality among the Babis at the conference following the abrogation of the Islamic Sharia is confirmed by some Bábí and Bahá'í sources. Mongol Bayat refers to the accusations of immorality at the conference as "grossly exaggerated", though she echoes that there was "mischief which a few of the irresponsible among the adherents of the Faith had sought". According to Peter Smith, some followers of the new faith "openly broke with Islamic practice, either to 'gratify their selfish desires', or as a deliberate act to proclaim the new day."
After Táhirih and Quddús reconciled their differences the two departed from Badasht riding in the same howdah. When they neared the village of Níyálá, the local mullá, outraged at seeing an unveiled woman sitting next a group of men and chanting poems aloud, led a mob against them. Several people died in the resulting clash and the Bábís were forced to disperse in different directions. Quddús eventually traveled to where Mullá Husayn was, at Shrine of Tabarsi where important events unfolded. Táhirih was arrested and held in Tehran.
The conference of Badasht is considered by Bábís and Bahá'ís as a signal moment that demonstrated that Islamic Sharia law had been abrogated and superseded by Bábí law as well as a key demonstration of the thrust of raising the social position of women. Although the unveiling led to accusations of immorality by a Christian missionary and Muslim clerics of the time, the Báb responded by supporting her position and endorsing the name Bahá'u'lláh gave her at the conference: the Pure (Táhirih).
- Battle of Fort Tabarsi one of the other major events of the Bábí period.
- Bahá'í Faith and gender equality
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran
- Deo, Veena (1993). "Celebrating the emergence of Iranian women writers from behind the veil". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 2 (3): 88–93. doi:10.1080/10669929308720042.
- Amanat, Abbas (1989). Resurrection and Renewal. Cornell University Press, New York, USA. ISBN 0-8014-2098-9.
- "Badasht". "B"s. bahaiglossary.org. Retrieved 4–3–2012.
- Milani, Farzaneh (1992). Veils and words: the emerging voices of Iranian women writers. Contemporary issues in the Middle East (illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. pp. 295, esp. 3, 8, 27, 49, 53, 61, 63, 77–82, 90. ISBN 978-1-85043-574-7.
- Momen, Moojan; Lawson, B. Todd (2004). "Táhirih". In Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-355-6.
- Maneck, Susan (1994). "Religion and Women". Albany: SUNY Press.
- Momen, Moojan (May 1983). "The Social Basis of the Babi Upheavals in Iran (1848-53): A Preliminary Analysis". International Journal of Middle East Studies (Cambridge University Press) 15 (2): 157–183. doi:10.1017/s0020743800052260. JSTOR 162988.
- Mottahedeh, Negar (Summer 1999). "Resurrection, Return, Reform: Ta'ziyeh as Model for Early Babi Historiography". Iranian Studies (International Society for Iranian Studies/Taylor & Francis) 32 (3). JSTOR 4311269.
- Mottahedeh, Negar (February 1998). "Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Táhirih in the Gardens of Badasht". Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies (H-Baha'i) 2 (2). Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- Fathi, A, ed. (1985). Women and the Family in Iran. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9004074260.
- Dabashi, Hamid (2011). Shi'ism: A Religion of Protest. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0674049454.
- Mysticism and Dissent: Socioreligious Thought in Qajar Iran, By Mongol Bayat, p. 118
- Maneck, Susan Stiles (2004). "Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood". In Āfāqī, Ṣābir; Jasion, Jan T. Táhirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West. RENNER studies on new religions 7. Kalimat Press. pp. 185–201. ISBN 978-1-890688-35-6.
- Nabíl-i-Zarandí (1932). Shoghi Effendi (Translator), ed. The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative (Hardcover ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 293. ISBN 0-900125-22-5.
- Hatcher, William S. and Martin, J. Douglas (1998). The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-87743-264-3.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Badasht". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 64–65. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Táhirih". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 332–333. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Woodman, Marion (1989). "The Role of the Feminine in the New Era". Journal of Bahá’í Studies (Association for Bahá’í Studies) 2 (1). Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "BADAŠT", Encyclopedia Iranica, By Moojan Momen
- Bayat, Mongol (1982). Mysticism and dissent: socioreligious thought in Qajar Iran. Syracuse University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8156-2260-4.
- Smith, Peter (1996). A short history of the Baha'i faith (illustrated ed.). Oneworld. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85168-070-2.
- Rev. Wilson, Samuel G. (1914). "Bahaism and the Woman Question - II". In Wilder, Royal Gould; Pierson, Delavan Leonard; Pierson, Arthur Tappan et al. The Missionary review of the world 37. Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 915–919.
- Rev. Wilson, Samuel G. (1915). "The Bayan of the Bab". In Armstrong, William Park. The Princeton Theological Review 13. MacCalla & Company Inc. pp. 633–654.
- Rev. Wilson, Samuel G. (1915). Bahaism and Its Claims: A Study of the Religion Promulgated by Baha Ullah and Abdul Baha. Fleming H. Revell co. pp. 171–172.