The Anglian Helmet from Coppergate, York
|Material||Iron, brass containing 85% copper|
|Discovered||1982 Coppergate York|
|Present location||Yorkshire Museum|
The Coppergate Helmet (also known as York Helmet) is an 8th-century Anglo-Saxon helmet found in York. It is remarkably well preserved and is one of only four Anglo-Saxon helmets discovered to date. The partial remains of a fifth helmet were found in the Staffordshire Hoard.
It has a rounded composite skull, the iron elements making up the skull are riveted together. Two deep cheek-pieces are attached to the skull by hinges. A mail curtain (camail) is attached to the lower rim of the helmet behind the cheek-pieces to defend the wearer's neck and an unusually large nose-guard (nasal) provided facial protection. The mail is remarkable in consisting of forge-welded links, rather than the far more common riveted links. It is richly decorated with brass ornamentation. On analysis, the helmet was found to be made of iron, with applied brass-work containing approximately 85 percent copper. Its basic construction is almost identical to another surviving Anglo-Saxon helmet, the Pioneer helmet. It is also very like the helmets depicted being worn by Anglo-Saxon Northumbrian cavalrymen on one of the Pictish Aberlemno Sculptured Stones, believed to depict the Battle of Dun Nechtain of 685.
The helmet has two low crests of brass, one running from front to back the other from side to side, forming a cross shape when viewed from above. The brass banding within the crests bears a Latin inscription:
- IN NOMINE : DNI : NOSTRI : IHV : SCS : SPS : DI : ET : OMNIBVS : DECEMVS : AMEN: OSHERE : XPI
- "In the name of our Lord Jesus, the Holy Spirit and God; and to all we say Amen / Oshere / Christ"
An alternative interpretation suggests the following translation:
- "In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and of the Spirit of God, let us offer up Oshere to All Saints. Amen."
Oshere is a male Anglian name and XPI are the first three letters of the word Christos Χριστός (khristos) in Greek.
The brass crest terminates in a decorative animal head at the base of the nasal. The brass eyebrow decorations which flank the nasal also terminate in animal heads. The decoration of the nasal itself consists of two intertwined beasts, whose bodies and limbs degenerate into interlace ornament.
Discovery and conservation
- James, S. (1986) Evidence from Dura Europos for the Origins of Late Roman Helmets. In: Syria, T. 63, Fasc. 1/2 (1986), pp. 107–134. Published by: Institut Francais du Proche-Orient, p. 134
- D. Tweddle, The Anglian Helmet from Coppergate, Archaeology of York 17/8, York Archaeological Trust 1992
- "Coppergate SKP". Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-07-02.[dead link]
- Cruickshank, Graeme (1985), Nechtansmere 1300: A Commemoration, Forfar: Forfar & District Historical Society.
- "Antiquity Vol 64:242, 1990 pp 134-139 - J. W. Binns et al. - The Latin inscription on the Coppergate helmet". antiquity.ac.uk. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- Wilson, David M. (1984) Anglo-Saxon Art. Thames and Hudson, pp. 67-69.
- Tweddle, Dominic (1992). The Anglian Helmet from Coppergate. Council for British Archaeology.
- Coppergate Helmet