Cortical spreading depression
Uses of the term
- The spreading of a self-propagating wave of cellular depolarization in the cerebral cortex.
- The spreading of a wave of ischemia passing through an area of cortex.
- The spreading of a wave of vasoconstriction following vasodilation and prolonged sustained vasoconstriction of contiguous cortical arterioles.
The spreading depression wave progresses across the cortex at approximately 2–5 mm/minute.
Increased extracellular potassium ion concentration and excitatory glutamate contribute to the initiation and propagation of cortical spreading depression, which is the underlying cause of migraine aura.
Chronic daily administration of migraine prophylactic drugs (topiramate, valproate, propranolol, amitriptyline, and methysergide) dose-dependently suppressed frequency of CSD induced by continuous cortical application of 1 M KCl solution. However lamotrigine (a drug with specific anti-aura action, but no efficacy in migraine in general) has a marked suppressive effect which correlates with its rather selective action on the migraine aura. Valproate and riboflavin were shown to have no effect on the triggering of cortical spreading depression though they are effective in migraine without aura. Taken together, these results are compatible with a causal role of cortical spreading depression in migraine with aura, but not in migraine without aura.
- Dodick DW & Gargus JJ (August 2008). "Why migraines strike". Scientific American.
- Brennan KC et al. (2007) "Distinct vascular conduction with cortical spreading depression." J Neurophysiol. 2007 Jun;97(6):4143-51. Epub 2007 Feb 28.
- Leão AAP (1944). "Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex". J Neurophysiol 7, 359-390.
- Porooshani H, Porooshani GH, Gannon L, & Kyle GM (2004). "Speed of progression of migrainous visual aura measured by sequential field assessment". Neuro-Ophthalmology 28(2), 101-105.
- Richter and Lehmenkühler (2008)
- Ayata et al. (2006) "Suppression of cortical spreading depression in migraine prophylaxis." Ann Neurol. 2006 Apr;59(4):652-61.
- Bogdanov et al. (2011) "Migraine preventive drugs differentially affect cortical spreading depression in rat." Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Feb;41(2):430-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.10.014. Epub 2010 Oct 23.
- "Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia", Nat Neurosci. 29 April 2007, Takano T, Tian GF, Peng W, Lou N, Lovatt D, Hansen AJ, Kasischke KA, Nedergaard M., Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
- "A delayed class of BOLD waveforms associated with spreading depression in the feline cerebral cortex can be detected and characterised using independent component analysis (ICA)", Magn Reson Imaging. 21 November 2003, Netsiri C, Bradley DP, Takeda T, Smith MI, Papadakis N, Hall LD, Parsons AA, James MF, Huang CL., Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
- "Cortical spreading depression (CSD): A neurophysiological correlate of migraine aura", Schmerz, May 17, 2008, Richter F, Lehmenkühler A.