Dehqan

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For the villages in Iran, see Dehqan, Iran.

The dehqan or dihqan (Persian: دهقان‎), were a class of land-owning magnates during the Sassanid and early Islamic period, found throughout Iranian-speaking lands.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The original meaning was “pertaining to deh" (Old Persian: dahyu), the latter term not in the later sense of “village” (as in Modern Persian) but in the original sense of “land”.[1]

Pre-Islamic Era[edit]

In the pre-Islamic Sassanid Empire, the dehqans were considered minor land-owners. The term dehqan emerged as a hereditary social class in the later Sassanid era, who managed local affairs and whom peasants were obliged to obey.

Following the suppression of the Mazdakite uprising, Khosrau I implemented social reforms which benefited the dehqans.[2][3] Later during the reign of Khosrau I and Kavad I, the dehqans gained influence as the backbone of the Sasanian army and as imperial tax collectors.[4] As their influence grew, they maintained Persian ethics, ideals and social norms which were later reawakened during medieval times in Islamic Persia.[5]

Islamic Era[edit]

In early Islamic texts, the dehqans function almost as local rulers under the Arab domain and the term was sometimes juxtaposed with marzabān (“marcher-lord, governor”). By the 11th century, the dehqans were landowners or directly involved in agriculture; either the planting or the management of the land.[6] Aside from their political and social role, the dehqans who were well versed in the history and culture of pre-Islamic Iran, played an important cultural role by serving rulers and princes as learned men.[7]

For example, the governor of Basra, according to a source, had three dehqans at his service, who told him of the grandeur of the Sassanids and made him feel that Arab rule was much inferior. Iranians had not only preserved the ideals of the dehqans from the Sassanid times and brought them into the Islamic period, but they also inculcated these ideals to the minds of the ruling Arab aristocracy, who also fused with Iranians.[7] In the 9th century, the Tahirids, who were of Persian dehqan origin, initiated a resurgence of Persian culture.[8]

During the Saljuq era, the dehqans played a major role as the Saljuqs turned to the dehqan aristocracy in order to govern their empire. The alliance between the dehqans and the Saljuqs actually created resentment among the Turcoman tribesmen after 1055 when Toghril Beg took over Baghdad.[7] Due to the attachment of the dehqans to Iranian culture, the term dehqan had already become synonymous to “a Persian of noble blood” in contrast to Arabs, Turks and Romans. According to some sources, including Nezami ‘Aruzi, the Iranian national poet Ferdowsi was also of the dehqan lineage.[7] Another poet that refers to himself as a dehqan is Qatran Tabrizi who was also well versed about ancient Iran. His poetry is replete with the references to ancient Iranian characters and their role.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Aḥmad Tafażżolī,"DEHQĀN" in Encyclopaedia Iranica
  2. ^ Parvaneh Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire, (I.B. Tauris, 2008), 85.
  3. ^ Touraj Daryee, Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, (I.B. Tauris, 2009), 29.
  4. ^ Touraj Daryee, Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, 29.
  5. ^ Touraj Daryee, Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, 55.
  6. ^ Ann K. S. Lambton, Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia, (SUNY Press, 1988), 132, note 5.
  7. ^ a b c d e Siavash Lornejad, Ali Doostzadeh "On the Modern Politicization of the Persian Poet Nezami Ganjavi", Edited by Victoria Arakelova, YEREVAN SERIES FOR ORIENTAL STUDIES (Editor of the Series Garnik Asatrian), Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies, Yerevan, 2012. [1][2]
  8. ^ Sectarian and national movements in Iran, Khurasan and Transoxanial during Umayyad in early Abbasid times, F. Daftary, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, ed. M.S. Asimov and C.E.Bosworth, (Motilal Banarsidass, 1999), 57.