Deviancy amplification spiral
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2009)|
A deviancy amplification spiral (also called deviance amplification) is a media hype phenomenon defined by media critics as a cycle of increasing numbers of reports on a category of antisocial behaviour or some other "undesirable" event, leading to a moral panic.
Origin of term
The process of deviancy amplication was first described by Wilkins[who?] in Social Deviance: Social policy, Action and Research (1964). Stanley Cohen adopted this theory in Folk Devils and Moral Panics, and applied it to the case scenario of the "Mods and Rockers", in which he identified the concept of the deviancy amplication spiral.
According to Cohen, the spiral starts with some "deviant" act. Usually the deviance is criminal, but it can also involve lawful acts considered morally repugnant by a large segment of society. With the new focus on the issue, hidden or borderline examples that would not themselves have been newsworthy are reported, confirming the "pattern".
Reported cases of such "deviance" are often presented as just "the ones we know about" or the "tip of the iceberg", an assertion that is nearly impossible to disprove immediately. For a variety of reasons, the less sensational aspects of the spiraling story that would help the public keep a rational perspective (such as statistics showing that the behavior or event is actually less common or less harmful than generally believed) tend to be ignored by the press.
As a result, minor problems begin to look serious and rare events begin to seem common. Members of the public are motivated to keep informed on these events, leading to high readership for the stories, feeding the spiral. The resulting publicity has the potential to increase the deviant behavior by glamorizing it, or by making it seem common or acceptable. In the next stage, public concern about crime typically forces the police and the law enforcement system to focus more resources on dealing with the specific deviancy than it warrants.
Judges and magistrates then come under public pressure to deal out harsher sentences and politicians pass new laws to increase their popularity by giving the impression that they are dealing with the perceived threat. The responses by those in authority tend to reinforce the public's fear, while the media continue to report police and other law enforcement activity, amplifying the spiral.
The theory does not contend that moral panics always include the deviancy amplification spiral. In modern times, however, media involvement is usual in any moral panic, making the spiral fairly common.
Eileen Barker asserts that the controversy surrounding certain new religious movements can turn violent in a deviancy amplification spiral. In his autobiography, Lincoln Steffens details how news reporting can be used to create the impression of a crime wave where there is none, in the chapter "I Make a Crime Wave".
- Availability heuristic
- Representativeness heuristic
- Yellow journalism
- Mass hysteria
- Folk devil
- Mean world syndrome
- Mass media
- Social control
- Crowd psychology
- Culture of fear
- Missing white woman syndrome
- Junk food news
- Sex party
- Gel bracelet
- Rainbow party
- Knockout (violent game)
- Barker, Eileen, Introducing New Religious Movements, Retrieved 22 November 2006.