Emin (Ottoman official)
An emin was an officer in the Ottoman empire; a "steward", the holder of an eminet, and often responsible for customs duties. Unlike a timar holder, an emin was a salaried official. Emins could operate outside the normal Ottoman bureaucracy; they were not necessarily Muslim.
Emins as customs officers
The emin was usually a customs officer - that is to say, a gümrük emini ; they were responsible for managing revenue from certain taxes, and collected duties on goods exported by foreigners. Although formally a tax official, the role of the emin (as with the role of other officials, such as the Kadi) could vary in practice; they might also be involved in consular, mediation, or even notarial work; and as a representative of the Ottoman state, could be authorised to apprehend Ottoman subjects who had committed crimes on foreign territory. As such, an emin resident in a foreign port that traded with the Ottoman empire could be valuable to both parties. An emin serving in a port could even act as a harbour-master or could prevent the export of restricted goods; in at least one case, Istanbul had to specifically instruct an emin to permit the export of a 27000 kg shipment of lead to be used by allies, which the emin had stopped in the port.
Emins as government agents
The emin could also take the place of a tax-farmer, collecting a defined package of taxes, and might report back to central authority identifying new ways to increase tax take. The sultan might grant extensive powers to the emin to ensure that taxes were collected. The emin might also be appointed to project-manage major construction work, and would submit a full report on each project - with financial details.
Emins might even be appointed as auditors, to investigate irregularities in tax collection performed by other officials; the emins could make recommendations on how to remedy the problem.
- "emin (Ottoman government official)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- İslamoğlu-İnan, Huri (2004). The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52607-4.
- MIOVIC, Vesna (2003). "EMIN (CUSTOMS OFFICER) AS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE REPUBLIC OF DUBROVNIK". Dubrovnik Annals 7.
- Marmaras, Emmanuel. Cycladic settlements of the Aegean Sea: a blending of local and foreign influences. doi:10.1080/02665430802320961.
- Ágoston, Gábor (2005). Guns for the sultan: military power and the weapons industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
- Bulut, Mehmet. Reconsideration of Economic Views of a Classical Empire and a Nation-State During the Mercantilist Ages.
- İnalcik, Quataert (1997). An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57456-3.
- Pamuk, Şevket (2000). A monetary history of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University press. ISBN 978-0-521-44197-1.
- Hickok, Michael (1997). Ottoman military administration in eighteenth-century Bosnia. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-10689-5.