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In physics, end correction is the anomal difference between the frequency of a tuning fork and the corresponding sound waves inside of a tube. It is caused because generally there is space between the fork and the pipe end, causing the air column to vibrate a short distance beyond the edge of the tube.
A theoretical basis for computation of the end correction is the radiation acoustic impedance of a circular piston. This impedance represents the ratio of acoustic pressure at the piston, divided by the flow rate induced by it. The air speed is typically assumed to be uniform across the tube end. This is a good approximation, but not exactly true in reality, since air viscosity reduces the flow rate in the boundary layer very close to the tube surface. Thus, air column inside the tube is loaded by the external fluid due to sound energy radiation. This requires an additional length to be added to the regular length for calculating the natural frequency of the pipe system.
We think that Antinode is formed at open end of the tube, but Antinode is formed slightly above the open end. This is called end correction. This is denoted by 'x'.
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