In abstract algebra, the endomorphism ring of an abelian group X, denoted by End(X), is the set of all homomorphisms of X into itself. The addition operation is defined by pointwise addition of functions and the multiplication operation is defined by function composition.
The type of functions involved can change depending upon the category of the Abelian group under examination. The endomorphism ring encodes several internal properties of the object. As the resulting object is often an algebra over some ring R, this may also be called the endomorphism algebra.
Let A be an abelian group and f and g be two group homomorphisms from A into itself. Then the functions may be added pointwise to produce a group homomorphism. Under this operation End(A) is an Abelian group. With the additional operation of function composition, End(A) is a ring with multiplicative identity. The multiplicative identity is the identity function on A.
If the set A does not form an Abelian group, then the above construction does not result in the set of endomorphisms being an additive group, as the sum of two homomorphisms need not be a homomorphism in that case. This set of endomorphisms is a canonical example of a near-ring which is not a ring.
- In the category of R modules the endomorphism ring of an R module M will only use the R module homomorphisms, which are typically a proper subset of the abelian group homomorphisms. When M is a finitely generated projective module, the endomorphism ring is central to Morita equivalence of module categories.
- If K is a field and we consider the K-vector space Kn, then the endomorphism ring of Kn consists of all K-linear maps from Kn to Kn: it is a K-algebra. After a basis for the vector space is chosen, this ring is naturally identified with the ring of n-by-n matrices with entries in K. More generally, the endomorphism algebra of the free module is naturally n-by-n matrices with entries in R.
- As a particular example of the last point, for any ring R with unity, End(RR) = R, where the elements of R act on R by left multiplication.
- In general, endomorphism rings can be defined for the objects of any preadditive category.
- Endomorphism rings always have multiplicative identity, namely the identity map.
- Endomorphism rings are typically non-commutative.
- If a module is simple, then its endomorphism ring is a division ring (this is sometimes called Schur's lemma).
- A module is indecomposable if and only if its endomorphism ring does not contain any non-trivial idempotent elements. If the module is an injective module, then indecomposability is equivalent to the endomorphism ring being a local ring.
- For a semisimple module, the endomorphism ring is a von Neumann regular ring.
- The endomorphism ring of a nonzero right uniserial module has either one or two maximal right ideals. If the module is Artinian, Noetherian, projective or injective, then the endomorphism ring has a unique maximal ideal, so that it is a local ring.
- The endomorphism ring of an Artinian uniform module is a local ring.
- The endomorphism ring of a module with finite composition length is a semiprimary ring.
- The endomorphism ring of a continuous module or discrete module is a clean ring.
- If an R module is finitely generated and projective (that is, a progenerator), then the endomorphism ring of the module and R share all Morita invariant properties. A fundamental result of Morita theory is that all rings equivalent to R arise as endomorphism rings of progenerators.
- Fraleigh (1976, p. 211)
- Passman (1991, pp. 4–5)
- Dummit (Foote, p. 347)
- Abelian groups may also be viewed as modules over the ring of integers.
- Drozd & Kirichenko 1994, pp. 23–31.
- Jacobson 2009, p. 118.
- Jacobson 2009, p. 111, Prop. 3.1.
- Wisbauer 1991, p.163.
- Wisbauer 1991, p. 263.
- Camillo et al. Zhou.
- Camillo, V. P.; Khurana, D.; Lam, T. Y.; Nicholson, W. K.; Zhou, Y. (2006), "Continuous modules are clean", J. Algebra 304 (1): 94–111, doi:10.1016/j.jalgebra.2006.06.032, ISSN 0021-8693, MR 2255822
- Drozd, Yu. A.; Kirichenko, V.V. (1994), Finite Dimensional Algebras, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-53380-X
- Dummit, David; Foote, Richard, Algebra
- Fraleigh, John B. (1976), A First Course In Abstract Algebra (2nd ed.), Reading: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-01984-1
- Passman, Donald S. (1991), A Course in Ring Theory, Pacific Grove: Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole, ISBN 0-534-13776-8