During the Cuban revolution, escopeteros were essential scouts and pickets from the Sierra Maestra and other mountain ranges to the plains. The "escopeteros" were responsible for semi-continuously holding terrain against smaller sized Batista patrols. The escopeteros provided first alerts, communications, protected supply routes, provided essential intelligence and often captured weapons which were sent up to the mainline Castro forces in the high mountains.
It can be argued that Ernesto Guevara's overseas adventures failed at least in part because of the lack of equivalent escopetero support. In the series of articles written by the staff of Escambray (circa 1988 to 2007, Che entre nosotros. Supplement to Escambray)  the critical role of escopeteros is repeatedly mentioned. Yet the Argentine guerrilla leader never appears to have planned the use of these essential, if poorly armed auxiliaries, in his operations overseas.
The original meaning of Escopeteros (in Spanish) was those armed with a smoothbore long barrel firearm, sometimes a trabuco or blunderbuss, and has been used in this general context in histories of Spain and Latin America. It has been used to describe a pitcher in baseball, or a sniping journalist. It has also been used in the context of fighting to until victory "El credo del escopetero".
- Morán Arce, Lucas 1980 La revolución cubana, 1953-1959: Una versión rebelde. Imprenta Universitaria, Universidad Católica; ISBN B0000EDAW9
- Álvarez Batista, Gerónimo 1983. III Frente a las puertas de Santiago. Editorial Letras Cubanas, Havana.
- Encinosa, Enrique G. 1989 El Escopetero Chapter in Escambray: La Guerra Olvidada Un Libro Historico De Los Combatientes Anticastristas En Cuba (1960-1966). Editorial SIBI, Miami www.latinamericanstudies.org, www.neoliberalismo.com
- Pérez Galdós, Benito El equipaje del rey José. Miguel D Cervantes Virtual Library www.cervantesvirtual.com